Nevada State Senatorial Race - Research Paper Example The challenge for the Nevada State Senate depended on a solitary seat. The challeng...
Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Nevada State Senatorial Race - Research Paper Example The challenge for the Nevada State Senate depended on a solitary seat. The challenged seat was District 9, in a challenge that made Becky Harris (R) beat momentum Justin Jones (D). GOP foreseen that Jones political race for requiring foundation examination for individual firearm deals would swing voters to choose Harris (Ballotpedia, 2014). The Nevada State Senate depended on a 20 state lawmaking chambers famous by Ballotpedia faculty similar to a front line chamber. The Nevada Senate had a divergence in divided harmony among Republicans and Democrats of one seat, which prompted 9% of the opportunities for casting a ballot in 2014 (Ballotpedia, 2014). In an audit of the practices of NevadaÃ¢â¬â¢s Senators, I would state the practices don't coordinate more to the partiesÃ¢â¬â¢ talk. This is on the grounds that the forces presented on them outperform divided behaviors. The Constitution engages the Senate the power to support, by a 66% larger part, understandings made by the managerial branch. The Senate has disposed of similarly not many of the several understandings it has surveyed, albeit a few have bombed in board of trustees or been hindered by the president. They may likewise adjust an understanding or receive revisions to an understanding (Unite States Senate, n.d). The head of state may likewise go into authoritative concurrences with abroad countries not influenced by Senate endorsement. The Senate has the lone power to direct gathers preliminaries, basically giving as judge and jury (Unite States Senate, n.d). Since 1789, the Senate has indicted seventeen government authorities, involving two presidents. The Senate has continually jealously protected its power to survey and praise or reject presidential decisions to execute and legal branch seats. The Constitution enables that the head of state will name, and by and with the guidance and endorsement of the Senate, will recruit Ambassadors (Unite States Senate, n.d). In considering the above constitution obligations that legislators
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Deals, banking, individuals and inspiration Essays Deals, banking, individuals and inspiration Essay Deals, banking, individuals and inspiration Essay Associated Banking Corporation has been working as a business bank for more than thirty years expanding its number of branches in the Philippines to more than 283 locales and a ton of other worldwide delegate units deliberately place comprehensively. (Alliedbank 2005). The accompanying zones of concern were noted during the investigation and research of the association: a.Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Technology and globalization. The site of the bank alliedbank.com.ph needs online talk mode for online requests that needs quick consideration. Outside rates are not refreshed early before anything else. I utilized their messaging framework for a basic ABA number request of their reporter bank in U.S.A. furthermore, I was not offered the right response, rather I was approached to make a pursuit in their reporter bankÃ¢â¬â¢s site. It was a basic request but their client care delegate can't flexibly a convenient answer. Essential things they should know when they are out there in the field. Internet banking is fueled by Bancnet online with a store move mode office that doesn't work in any event, for same bank nearby exchanges. There is no presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s message in their presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s message page. I utilized the email accommodated the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s message and I was thinking about whether it has a connection since it doesn't have a spring up window. At any rate I sent an email to the email address that was given and as of recently there was no answer gotten from the president nor did I get any auto email responder. The web based financial page doesn't have an online application structure for opening of new records where customers can oversee topping off the new records structure first at that point go to their ideal branches for the introduction of required prerequisites and mark. Contrasted and HSBC site, page for structures and records can be downloaded at hsbc.com.ph/ph/structures/forms.htm, HSBC I think has a greater amount of an edge to client care and worldwide banking. There is no cost free telephone administration number accommodated call questions. An association as worldwide as Allied Bank overseeing without the ongoing innovation to improve full-blossom client assistance relationship the board framework. I wonder on the off chance that one loses his AT card in the night can sue the bank for inability to give the off ices to call without paying if there should arise an occurrence of loses if around then he doesn't have any assets to make a paid call to the Head Office normal hotline number and no one in the close by branches is wakeful to make the hold out card exchange. b.Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Customer administration experience and inspiration. There is an obvious absence of call focus administration portrayal and the innovation to help and continue bank exercises. Bank employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s inspiration by means of innovation usage and improvement might be given by a web based financial device which may snatch and clutch clients forever which is as far as anyone knows will be the core of any bankÃ¢â¬â¢s long haul technique. The heart is missing now, there are just individuals moving yet with complete absence of inspiration and energy, adroit information on bank items and force administration drives to goal obscure for a decentralize territory of power. c.Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Cross selling and inspiration. Strategically pitching bankÃ¢â¬â¢s partner organizations items is a decent type of exchanging endeavors to improve incorporatorÃ¢â¬â¢s speculations. In the event that we investigate the manner in which it was executed, we can see that a decent piece of the post and selling procedure of the New York Life (NYL) protection items has been put on the shoulders of the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s Branch Heads (BH) and down to the shoulders of the staff. In my exploration there is just the nearness of push and figures for deals portion. There was a nonappearance of observing and investigation to viable deals correspondence process among investors and clients regarding arranging and follow up framework. The NYL association completely runs from the structure of the bank which might be the underlying arrangement however neglected to recognize corporate statement of purpose and objectives of the bank which are selling their fundamental items. NYL individ uals were just there to present and close deal however subsequent meet-ups and pay special mind to planned market were the weight of the BHs. Mabuhay Miles could be a free promotion item from Philippines Airlines which is additionally their sister organization, however their facilitator and programming neglected to give explicit reports of a rundown of the individuals who were selected at their vault branch one after another in order. So the new records agent needs to make a quest for the number or name of the investor first before enlisting. The board has given severe strategy of enrolling to accounts that were two years of age and over however there was no arrangement in the product of Allied Bank to effortlessly get to store accounts with their comparing ages. How would you think representatives who were given the portion will figure out how to enroll contributors and feel about how things work and run in the association? d.Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Work conditions and additional time installments. Cost cutting and requesting bank representatives inspiration isn't very much remunerated when cooling were being supplanted by electric fans to save money on power. Envision the smell and the warmth of a workplace as, for example, an impermeable shut space to expound without appropriate ventilation and cooling. There is a foreordained cooling working hours. Regardless of whether we permit one unit to run it despite everything can't suit to cool the whole branch where individuals are as yet working. The most terrible that is occurring is the cutting of the quantity of hours worked past ordinary hours, additional time by the worker. Recollect being ceaselessly from your family for such a long time a period in any event, stretching out to late nighttimes and getting paid for just a level of the work done. A generally excellent inspiration and conduct reinforcers plan to build up a revolting difficult worker. e.Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Product information and preparing. More often than not the bank offers items and administrations with no preparation and direction made on item information. Just notices were given. What's more, in the event that they hold trainings, workers are not being paid for the participation. It is now a reality with the association that in the event that they hold half day classes in Cebu territory specifically, it for the most part finishes at around 2-3pm without any arrangements for snacks or suppers. Just light tidbits were given. Workers would prefer not to go to classes any longer in light of the impacts on their wellbeing. Envision tuning in to your upper level administration addresses in aches of craving in the event that it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t drive you to the entryways of the specialists for diseases of hyperacidity and ulcers. f.Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Duties and obligations versus designation of capacities. Tellers and new records were given a great deal of assigned obligations by chiefs and officials. They can't take care of business on account of the arrangement of HRD in their rundown of obligations and duties inscribed as Ã¢â¬Å"and every single other obligation and duties relegated by the branchÃ¢â¬ . The setting of their capacities isn't generally playing out their relative capacities yet stretched out to the elements of the officials too. This gives a thought of chance to appreciate for some Branch Operation Officers the assignment of perusing papers nearly the whole day, making phone discussions, marking reports and making subsequent meet-ups on appointed capacities. Pleasant compensation great work! This in truth shortens the voice of the worker to refer to manhandle. g.Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Branch assignments and occupation revolutions and inspirations. The current exchanges of branch assignments and occupation pivots without the understanding of the representative concern. 2005 notice expresses that the greatest number of years they are permitted to remain in a branch is five years in particular. Everything depends on guidelines and the board right to move representatives, nothing on how worker feels on the new outstanding task at hand and how they respond on the closeness of their new branch assignments from home. Travel and stress make the most piece of their time going to work from north to south. What about the thought of aptitudes and working up of compatibility with client assistance? By what means can HRD ignore acclimation and time of modifications, capability, fulfillment, and worker assurance? Association change examination and proposition Consultative banking portrayed the jobs of brokers as specialist to their clients expanding perceived open doors by examining choices and helping them in their dynamic stage with most extreme certainty. This sort of way to deal with deals expects brokers to take a gander at their items and administrations from their customerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective creation it as applicable as an expansion in piece of the pie benefit and improvement of long haul relationship in an exceptionally serious industry. The point of convergence of selling at that point is to comprehend the requirements of the clients with complete obliteration of the idea of entryway to entryway selling. The connection consequently is expanding the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to reveal needs, take care of issues and improve circumstances of the clients to a commonly valuable relationship. (Richardson 1984). The methodology hence is building connections which are an extraordinary complexity to the issues I have refered to in bran ch moves and employment turns. Building relationship requires time and it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t advantage the bank if in the time that you nearly become more acquainted with the client you will be moved to another branch. In their drive for a Know Your Client (KYC) order, they overlooked that time envelops such turn of events. Representatives additionally experience low spirit and incredible worry in tolerating duties without wanting to. Genuine inspiration comes from great administration and follows the rules set ordinarily. Inspirations as feelings have unwittingly set its place in the everyday operat
Saturday, August 8, 2020
All-Star LinkedIn Users Are 40 Times More Likely to Get Contacted - Heres How to Score That Rating Almost every professional knows the importance of LinkedIn, whether someone is job hunting or not. LinkedIn makes it easier for people to locate you online, adds a bit more flavor to what is on your resume and allows you to remain on top of trends and happenings within your industry.LinkedIn is hands down the best platform to promote yourself as a professional and manage your professional network. Because of this, a lot of professionals know they need to have a profile on LinkedIn, and many of them actually do, which is why LinkedIn boasts of more than 500 million users.Still, many of those on LinkedIn do not take full advantage of the benefits offered by the platform because they think simply having a profile is enough.Today, I want to show you how you can make the most of LinkedIn and increase your chances of getting conducted by elevating your LinkedIn profile to an All-Star rating.UNDERSTANDING LINKEDINâS PROFILE STRENGTHLinkedIn ranks user profiles in five levels depending on the profileâs level of completion. As you complete your profile and add more content to it, your profile strength increases. At the bottom rung is the Beginner Status, which is given to users with less than 50% profile completion.To be ranked as a beginner, you only need to set up your profile and fill in basic information such as your name, your location, one job and three skills.The next level is Intermediate, which is given to users who have reached 50% profile completion. The Intermediate level is followed by Advanced level, which is reserved for users who have reached more than 75% profile completion. This is followed by Expert level, which is given to users who have reached 90% profile completion. At the top of the ladder is the All Star level, which is reserved for users who have 100% profile completion.If you want to increase your chances of success on LinkedIn, the All-Star status is what you should be aiming for. LinkedIn algorithms are designed to give priority to users with complete profiles by ranking them higher in search results compared to users with incomplete profiles.With a complete profile, you are more likely to be found and contacted. Actually, users with an All-Star status are 40 times more likely to get contacted through LinkedIn compared to users who are yet to attain that status.To achieve All-Star status on LinkedIn, there are eight key components that you need to fill in on your profile. Below, we take a look at how to fill in these eight key components in order to score the All-Star status.THE EIGHT KEY COMPONENTS OF ALL-STAR STATUSProfile PhotoIf you do not have a profile photo on your LinkedIn profile, you are making a very huge mistake. Your profile photo is one on the most important elements on your profile. It is your first chance to make an impression on other LinkedIn users and communicate to them that you are likable, trustworthy and friendly.The impression you make with your profile photo matters a lot.A study published in Social Psychological and Personality Science shows that the first impression a person forms about you from a photo is likely to stick even after meeting you in person.Having a profile photo also increases your chances of having your profile viewed. LinkedIn statistics show that profiles with a professional profile photo are 14 times more likely to be viewed, compared to those without a photo. In addition, having a profile photo makes it easier for people to recognize you, especially if there are several other people with a name similar to yours.One thing you need to understand here is that simply having a profile photo is not enough. To increase your chances of getting viewed, your profile photo needs to look professional. Donât include your spouse, kids, or pets in your LinkedIn profile photo. You should be the only one in the photo, and the background should be clear. Your dressing in the photo should be formal.If you canât wear it to your workplace, it has no place in your LinkedIn profile photo. Oh, and remember to smile. It makes you look confident, friendly and inviting.Headline Your headline is what appears just below your name. The aim of the headline is to let other people know who you are professionally. When you sign up for your LinkedIn account, LinkedInâs default suggestion is that you should enter your job title and the name of the company you work for.Sure, that works, but if you want to stand out from the other 562 registered LinkedIn users, you need to be more creative. While the headline is limited to 120 characters, this is more than enough to write an attention grabbing headline. So, how do you write a great headline?Instead of listing your job title and company, use your headline to show your passion and the value you bring to the table. What do clients or companies stand to gain by hiring or working with you? What unique skills do you have?Remember to include industry related keywords (not overused buzzwords) to make easier for r ecruiters and clients to find you. Below are some examples of what you can write on your headline instead of your title and company:Rockstar Content Strategist, Top Performer, Seeking Nonprofit OpportunitiesFinancial Analyst Specializing In Startup IT CompaniesElite Blockchain Programmer With A Passion For Coding And Mastery In Solidity. Java And Python CertifiedThe above headlines are clearly more eye catching than content strategist at ABC or programmer at XYZ.Summary The summary sections gives you a chance to expound on your headline. This is where you introduce yourself and share your personal story directly with your audience. Many people find writing a summary about themselves to be a difficult task, but it need not be. Imagine yourself in an evening cocktail party for people within your industry.Drinks are flowing, the atmosphere is warm and relaxed. You strike a conversation with a charming lady or gentleman, and after a bit of chit chat, they say, âSo, tell me about yours elf.â You should write your summary the same way you would answer that question in a relaxed professional setting.When writing your summary, you should talk about things such as what you love about your job, your strengths and specialties, some of the successes you have had in your career, things about your industry that give you satisfaction, and so on.You have 2000 characters to play with here, which is more than enough to show other users why you are someone worthy reaching out to. Below is an example of a great LinkedIn summary.âI am a seasoned content writer with over 7 yearsâ experience in the tech industry. Iâm passionate about helping websites increase their traffic and conversions. I have spent the last 3 years with company XYZ, during which I have grown their website traffic from one million visitors a month to 12 million visitors a month and increased their online sales by 62%. I have been featured on Mashable and Wired. Iâm currently offering my services as a w eb consultant. If youâd like us to work together, get in touch through email@example.com.âSkillsLinkedIn is a platform for making professional connections, so it is important to highlight whatever skills you bring to the table. LinkedIn allows you to list up to 50 skills in this section. You donât have to fill up all the 50 skills though. In order to score the All-Star status, you only need to list a minimum of 5 skills.Wondering why you should bother adding skills to your profile? Well, according to LinkedIn, users with at least 5 skills on their profile are viewed 13 more times on average compared to users who do not have their skills listed on their profiles.While you can list up to 50 skills on your profile, donât get carried away. You want to make sure that you are sharing the right skills. A good way of identifying relevant skills to list on your profile is to look at the profiles of your colleagues and people you admire within your field. What skills have they listed on their profiles? Take the ones that apply to you and add them to your profile. Donât limit your list to technical skills only.Many recruiters prioritize job seekers with transferrable soft skills as well, so be sure to highlight one or two soft skills on your profile, such as leadership, communication, collaboration, time management, and so on. Finally, keep in mind that LinkedIn allows you to edit the order in which your skills are shown on your profile. Edit yours and make sure the most important skills are shown first.ExperienceThis section allows you to tell a story of where you have been as a professional. Since you are aiming for the All-Star status, you need to list your current position and two past positions. You wonât be able to score All-Star status without listing two past positions. Need more reason as to why you need to list your previous positions?LinkedIn says that profiles with more than one job listed are 12 times more likely to be viewed than those with jus t the current position.One mistake that many LinkedIn users make when filling out their experience section is to simply mention where they worked and the position they held there. If you want to show your worth to recruiters and prospective employers, you need to do more than that.Share more details about your previous positions.What interesting projects did you work on during your time there? What were your key achievements and accomplishments? What did you deliver? What did you learn? What special credentials did you earn?Use figures to quantify your achievements in each position.If you have any pictures, videos, presentations, press releases or links to support your work experience, donât be shy to use them.Industry And LocationThe aim of this section is to let other users know what industry you work in and where you are located. Many people do not see the importance of this section and therefore tend to leave it blank. However, you cannot score the All-Star status without fill ing in this section.In addition to the All-Star status, adding your industry and location makes it easier for you to be found. LinkedIn allows users to filter their search results based on industry and location.Adding your industry and location allows users searching for people within your industry or location to find you.EducationTo score the All-Star status, you also need to add your education. Adding your education has a number of benefits beyond propelling you towards All-Star status.First, by listing your highest qualification, you are proving your academic level. Letâs say that you got a Bachelorâs Degree in Engineering, but later decided to pursue a career as a freelance writer or a social media manager. In such an instance, it might seem that your bachelorâs degree has no correlation to your current profession, and it might be tempting to leave it out.However, listing it in your education section shows prospective clients and employers that they are dealing with someon e whose thinking is at university level.Listing your education also makes it easier to build your network by providing you with an opportunity to connect to other users who went to the same school as you.When listing your education, donât stop at the school you attended and the certification you earned. Use this as another chance to show your worth by talking about any other skills or knowledge you gained during your school days. Were you the president of the studentâs union?This is a chance to showcase your leadership skills. Were you a member of the computer club? This is a chance for you to showcase your passion for your industry. Talking about your experiences at school also provides you with a chance to tuck in some extra keywords into your profile, thus making it easier for recruiters, employers and clients to find you.ConnectionsIn order to score All-star status, you also need to have 50 or more LinkedIn connections. Finding people to connect with should not be a difficul t task.There are several ways of finding people you may know on LinkedIn. The first option is to important contacts from your email address. This will bring up a list of LinkedIn users whose contacts you have in your address book. You can then go through the list and send invitations to those you want to add as connections.You can also use the âAlumniâ tab, which will bring up a list of people who went to the same school as you. Go through the list and send invitations to those you want to connect with. Another option is to use the âColleaguesâ tab, which allows you to find people who have worked at the same companies you have worked at.Finally, you also have the option of using the âPeople You May Knowâ tab. This option gives you a list of users LinkedIn thinks you may know based on your current suggestions. If you find people you actually know, you can then go ahead and add them to your network.BONUS TIPS TO MAKE YOUR PROFILE ALL-STAR PLUSBy filling in these eight key components, you will be able to score the All-Star status and get ahead of nearly half of the competition, since only 51% of LinkedIn users have a complete profile. However, you still have another half of the 562 million LinkedIn users to compete with.If you want to separate yourself from the other All-Star LinkedIn users, you need to make your profile an All-Star Plus.This means going beyond the basics of having a complete profile and tweaking a few other elements to further increase your chances of being found and contacted by recruiters, employers and clients. Below are some tips to help you turn your profile into an All-Star Plus profile.Customize Your URLYour LinkedIn profile URL provides you with an easy way to share your LinkedIn profile. You simply need to copy it and paste it in an email, a tweet, a Facebook post, a text message, or even on your website. Anyone who clicks on the link will be directed to your LinkedIn profile.Unfortunately, there is one problem. The default LinkedIn profile URL is nowhere near pretty. It looks something like this:http://www.linkedin.com/in/name-surname-99ru49Un9430nbKWould you be confident sharing your LinkedIn profile URL when is has jumbled string of letters and numbers at the end? What many do not know is that LinkedIn allows you to customize your LinkedIn profile to something more presentable, such as:http://www.linkedin.com/in/name-surnameCustomizing your LinkedIn profile URL has a number of benefits. First, it increases your chances of ranking higher in search results, both on LinkedIn and on Google. Second, it is more memorable and makes it easier for you to direct people to your LinkedIn profile. Finally, a customized LinkedIn URL also looks sharp on your resume and in your email signatures.Customizing your LinkedIn profile URL is quite easy. Simply click on your avatar on your LinkedIn homepage and click on âView Profileâ. Once your profile page opens, find and click on the âEdit public profile and URLâ button, which is usually on the right side of the page.Clicking on the button will allow you to edit your profile URL as you please, provided that the URL you choose is available and does not contain special characters.Ask For RecommendationsAsking for recommendations is another great way of boosting your LinkedIn profile. Recommendations are essentially statements from other LinkedIn users describing your skills, expertise, strengths, personal qualities, or their experience working with you.Recommendations are like testimonials showing what other people enjoy most about working with you. Asking for recommendations boost your profile in two ways.First, recommendations contribute to higher rankings in LinkedInâs people search results.Second, recommendations act as social proof, giving recruiters, employers and clients the confidence that they wonât regret hiring or working with you. If other people have had a pleasant experience working with you and give you glowing reviews on LinkedIn, this gives you credibility and shows that you are actually a great person who is good at what you do. You can learn how to score amazing LinkedIn recommendations here.Add Additional Profile FeaturesYou can also increase your views and show your value by filling in additional profile features such as your volunteering experience, projects you have worked on, your published work, courses, certifications, patents, honors and awards, and languages. For instance, LinkedIn says that listing your volunteer experience can increase the number of views by up to six times compared to leaving it off your profile.In addition to increasing the number of views on your profile, filling these additional profile features presents an all-round picture of yourself and changes the way recruiters and employers evaluate you â" for better.The charities and causes you have volunteered for show the kind of person you are and the things you care about. In addition, almost half of hiring managers co nsider volunteer experience to be equivalent to traditional, full-time work experience.Commit To Posting At Least Once A WeekAnother effective way to increase views on your profile, stand out from the crowd and increase the chances of being contacted is to regularly post on LinkedIn. LinkedIn says that users who post at least once a week increase their chances of being contacted by recruiters by up to 10 times.Posting regularly also increases your reach to people outside your network. Every time a person you are connected to interacts with your post, the post becomes visible to people within their network. This can significantly increase your reach.Posting regularly also enhances your relationships with your network, which is the essence of being on LinkedIn. By posting great content on your profile, you are providing value to your connections, which is a great way of building relationships.Finally, by posting valuable content regularly, you position yourself as an expert within you r field. This increases your likelihood of being contacted, being hired and being paid more.WRAPPING UPYou can increase your chances of being contacted on LinkedIn by up to 40 times simply by scoring the All-Star status. Attaining All-Star status is also quite easy. You just need to ensure that you have filled in the 8 key components discussed above.However, if you really want to stand out from the competition, you need to do more than fill your profile completely. You also need to ensure that each of these sections is filled in the right way, with relevant information. The bonus tips given within the article will further improve your chances of getting contacted and getting hired.The key thing here is that you should focus not only on the completeness of your profile, but also on the quality of all the information you share on your profile.
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Psychology is the scientific study of actions and behaviors. Psychologists often form hypotheses and test these through studies and research. They carefully follow the scientific method to gather data. The research methods used by psychologists vary by branches of study. These methods include controlled laboratory experiments, and personality, intelligence, aptitude, or performance tests. Other methods of research are interviews, observations, questionnaires, surveys, and clinical studies. There are a wide range of careers under the umbrella of psychology. According to the American Psychological Association, there are fifty-six different divisions of psychology. Some of these divisions include abnormal, biological, clinical,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The most common type of psychology is clinical psychology. Clinical psychology deals with the treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Problems a clinical psychologist may treat include depression, schizop hrenia, or phobias. They often consult with physicians about the physical symptoms a patient has that are caused by underlying psychological issues, such as anorexia nervosa. Counseling psychologists advise people on how to take advantage of their resources and cope with everyday problems in life. These professionals use psychotherapy, teaching, and scientific research dealing with individuals, families, and organizations. Neuropsychologists study relationships between the brain and behavior. They study the way the brain makes and stores memories, and the way an injury can affect emotions and behavior. Neuropsychologists often use imaging techniques such as PET and MRI. They also help victims of brain injuries resume a normal life. Educational psychology focuses on how effective teaching and learning take place. It deals with learning environments, and studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ abilities and motivation. Educational psychologists often meet with parents and teachers to determine t he best strategy for healthy learning, particularly for disabled and gifted children. Psychology is often confused with psychiatry. Although both studies are those of mental health, they are not synonymous. Psychiatrists are actually medical doctors who have a specialtyShow MoreRelatedPsychology : Psychology And Psychology1630 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPsychology is a very broad field of study and requires a lot of research when choosing a career. The education that is required for pursuing a career in the field of psychology depends on the type of psychologist you want to be. Most psychology programs require at least a master s degree to pursue a psychologist career, but some may require a doctoral degree. It is important to know the educational requirements as well as state requirements when entering the field of psychology. Southwestern hasRead MoreA Brief Note On Forensic Psychology And The Criminal Justice System1270 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescriminal justice system can be broken dow n into various different parts, all of which composed of people doing different jobs. While many people only know of common roles, there are many smaller jobs that are no less important. One critical job linked to the criminal justice system is that of a forensic psychologist. Forensic psychology requires a background in psychology, but works primarily in the court system. Most of the time, a forensic psychologist applies their expertise in psychology to a case,Read MoreThe Importance Of Becoming A Forensic Psychologist1218 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestheir future. Every minute of every day is spent trying to become better equipped, whether it be voluntary or an instinct. Picking a career is just one example of an aspect in life that is heavily dependent on choices throughout life. Decisions about what courses to take, what college to attend, what major to pick, where to live after graduation, all depend on the career a person is pursuing. For someone who desires to enter the department o f forensic psychology, certain steps must be taken. It is essentialRead MoreThe World of Psychology Essay example620 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesadvertised product. Psychologists usually treat patients with a mental or emotional problem, but they also serve as scientists researching human behavior. They study how humans relate to each other, and work to improve these relationships. Psychologist especially concentrates on behaviors that affect the mental and emotional health of healthy human beings. In order to be a psychologist, one must know the educational requirements, the benefits, and the working conditions. Psychologists study the humanRead MorePsychology or Accounting?775 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPsychology or Accounting Choosing a career is one of the most important decisions a person has to make in their life. It is so important because that is what people will have to do to support their selves throughout life. For the past ten years psychology and accounting were two of the top ten potential career choices. According to the U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics up to 70,000 bachelors degrees in psychology were awarded, and up to 30,000 in accountingRead MoreA Career in Medical Psychology1223 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesusually a really enormous subject matter. They are a lot of numerous career fields of therapy. Therapy being a scholarly analyze with the brain as well as actions goes towards Historic Greeks. There is also proof of subconscious believed within ancient Egypt. Psychology seemed to be the branch of philosophy until the 1870s, whenever the idea created just as one separate medical discipline. Psychology edges with a few other career fields as well as ph ysiology, neuroscience, artificial intelligenceRead MoreA Nurse For A Long Time947 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesconfirmed to me that this really is something that I want to do. I was able to ask him questions that pertained to a future with a psychology degree. He told me that psychology is a wonderful thing to go into. There is such a need for them in so many different areas. He told me that as a psychology major each person must choose an Emphasis. There are three emphases at BYU Idaho: General Psychology, Industrial organization psychology, and medical psychology. General Psychology emphasis is basically a normalRead MoreSelf Assessment And Education Planning1116 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrequired to work in any of the fields assessed on the spectrum, along with the determination and skills to fulfill the necessary requirements. Results in the interest profiler measured my Primary area of interest as (S) Social and specifies several career options available by obtaining a degree in psychology. The profiler outlined a person with social interest with a preference of being involved in assisting, encouraging learning and personal growth. The Social type prefers to communicate, teach, and offerRead MorePsychology, The Scientific Study Of The Mind1476 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages is a very broad field with many career opportunities. Psychology is a fairly new field and has many job opportunities available for anyone wanting to make a career with a degree. There are therapy related jobs along with jobs that are not therapy related. Most psychologists wanting a job that is therapy related need a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree or doctoral, however ones who do not pursue a job with therapy obtain a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s or masterÃ¢â¬â¢s. The average pay for psychologists ranges from around $70,000 to $100Read MoreIs Winning Everythi ng? : Is It All About The Enjoyment Of The Game That Really Matters?1618 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesnot feel themselves. Whether those are days where theyÃ¢â¬â¢re mentally or physically off, they should have an option to speak their mind to someone. All they really need is a different mind frame. That is when a psychologist is suggested. There are many different types of psychologists to choose from. Students, for example, need education psychologist while athletes need a sports psychologist. On the field of competition, all athletes must have a survival mentality. To reach the Gold and Glory,
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Hi, my name is xxxxxxx and this is xxxxx. Our talk is on Topic 10: Distribution strategies. The first question asked us to examine Marketing Distribution Channels. Identify and describe the marketing distribution channel system currently being used by the company and product and highlight the types of wholesalers and/or retailers used. A distribution channel can be defined as a set of interdependent organisations and firms that are involved in the process of directing products from producers to end consumers. Marketing Intermediaries are an integral part of this process and can be seen as middlemen. They are used to help the company promote, sell, and distribute its goods to other necessary intermediaries or ultimately - the finalÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Exclusive distribution involves a limited number of intermediaries given exclusive rights to distribute the companys products, so as to limit number of channel members to one intermediary in each geographic territory. An example of this type of distribution can be easily found in the automotive industry, with prestigious brands such as Porsche, Ferrari, Jaguar and Maseratti all having a limited number of dealerships. Selective distribution involves the use of more intermediaries than that used on an exclusive basis, but still fewer than all possible intermediaries. A limited few intermediaries are used to sell the product within a given geographic region. This is a technique employed by many television or furniture companies. Clothing companies such as country road and Tommy Hilfiger as distribute in this manner. Using selective methods enables means company does not have to spread it efforts out over a large area, this gives a higher amount of control and usually results in lower costs. Companies can then concentrate on relationships and interactions with intermediaries so as to maintain a good image and to improve the overall selling effort. Intensive distribution is used by producers of convenience goods and common raw materials. Intensive distribution is a strategy which entails the use of all possible and suitable outlets for the product. This type of distribution is highly competitive and is often sought by manufacturers of high-volume,Show MoreRelatedMarketing Theory and Example7270 Words Ã |Ã 30 PagesTopic : Marketing. 1.introduce to marketing. The major purpose of marketing is to recognize the individual and societal needs. If a product is produced without consumption, it will not be able to bring any profits to the manufacturer. Therefore, the brief definition of marketing is to evaluate peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s needs profitably. In 1985, the American Marketing Association defines marketing as follow: Marketing is the activity, set of processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offeringsRead MoreA Report on Exploring Distribution Channel of Grameen Phone7792 Words Ã |Ã 32 PagesA Report on Exploring Distribution Channel of Grameen Phone i A Report on Exploring Distribution Channel of Grameen Phone Submitted To Dr. Md. Baktiar Rana Course Title: Marketing Channel Management Course Code: MKT 403 Submitted By Aniqa Tahsin Anchal(787) Md. Shafaeth Zaman(802) Nafiz Imtiaz Noor(816) Md. Ashiqul Islam(1332) Md. Aftarul Islam(1981) Date of Submission 22nd February, 2014 Institute of Business Administration, Jahangirnagar University ii LETTERRead MoreMass Communication5882 Words Ã |Ã 24 Pagesincreasingly focused on the convergence of publishing, broadcasting and digital communication. 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Introduction Singapore is the nation of islands whichRead MoreSales and Marketing for Financial Institutions80443 Words Ã |Ã 322 PagesFIN235 sales and marketing for financial institutions Master of Applied Finance INTRODUCTION TOPIC 1 TOPIC 2 TOPIC 3 TOPIC 4 TOPIC 5 TOPIC 6 TOPIC 7 TOPIC 8 TOPIC 9 INTRODUCTION DISCLAIMER These materials are issued by Kaplan Higher Education on the understanding that: 1. Kaplan Higher Education and individual contributors are not responsible for the results of any action taken on the basis of information in these materials, nor forRead MoreTaran Swan Hbr Case Analysis2602 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesNickelodeon is a cable channel for kids 2-11 years old. It started out in the US in 1979. Nickelodeon produced cartoons, live action, comedy, drama, music, sports and game shows. In 1996 it was the most popular kidÃ¢â¬â¢s TV channel in the US. The international channels had their own names, but relied on US programs that were voiced over. The channels were launched by a team from corporate the company called the Nickelodeon International Swat Team. They would build the channel and transition it to localRead MoreDaffodil International University7456 Words Ã |Ã 30 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Daffodil International University Internship Report On Marketing Challenges of Readymade Garments Industry in Global Market: A Comparative Study on Lusaka Group Supervised By: Mr.Gouranga Chandra Debnath Assistant Professor Department of Business Administration Daffodil International University Prepared By: Md.Nahid Hasan ID NO # 073-11-2130 Batch: 18th Major: Marketing Date of Submission: 31-08-2014Read MoreEssay on Bus 599 Week 11 Bus599 Week 115733 Words Ã |Ã 23 Pagesbelieve is the best strategic position for your company. Explain the approach you will use to implement this strategic position in order to distinguish your beverage from other non-alcoholic beverages. 5. Provide an overview of your companyÃ¢â¬â¢s distribution channels. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Discussion Based on the data at Tables 4c. 2 and 4c. 3, it is evident that the tropical rainforest has higher species richness than the tropical grassland ecosystem. We will write a custom essay sample on Tropical Rainforests vs Tropical Grasslands or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, when based in the indices on Diversity, Similarity and Dominance in the tropical grassland and tropical rainforest data, the Simpson Indices favor the data for the tropical rainforest as more diverse than the tropical grassland. The Simpson Indices, as defined in Cuevas et. al (2012), is based on dominance and as the number of dominant species in a community are few, the species has low diversity. The tropical rainforest ecosystem showed a higher index of dominance than the tropical rainforest resulting to the higher values it obtained in the Simpson Indices of Similarity and Evenness. This means that most of the dominant organisms present in the grassland are quite similar and the same due to the higher Simpson Indices on Equitability and Diversity while it is a different case for the forest. First, we need to identify the forest study site as a secondary or primary growth type. From the tables of species richness and number of species seen in an area, we can deduce that the forest study site is a secondary growth forest. Secondary growth forests are products of secondary succession. Secondary succession, as described in Campbell (1996), is the type of succession that occurs when the soil is intact and accommodates a considerable amount of nutrients that can support life. This succession is primarily dependent on the pioneer species (e. g mosses, weeds and etc. ) which tends the soil from its lifeless state. Since pioneer species are mostly small and more adaptable to the harsh environment, we can say that the organisms or individuals present in the forest study site are products of secondary succession. A primary growth tropical rainforest, in turn, has the following characteristics: a barren soil, presence of few organisms that can flourish at extreme conditions (pioneer organisms) and development of communities in a newly formed habitat (Ricklefs, 2008). However, the study site showing the higher species diversity based on Shannon index is the tropical rainforest study site. Comparing data presented at Table 4C. 4, the tropical rainforest showed that even in the degree of randomness of the species, the tropical rainforest showed a wider variety of species compared to the tropical grassland. The Shannon Indices are also dependent on the species richness or the number of species in a given area. (Begon et. al, 2006). Also, some species or individuals are specific in terms of their habitat. This species are sometimes common in a given habitat while rare in another type of habitat. For the common species in the grassland, Imperata cyndrica, Mimosa and Elepantopus are examples of species that are generally common due to their intercepted lengths or relative covers, as seen in Table 4C. 2, which yielded considerable values for it to be classified as common. Grassland individuals form in clusters and are difficult to recognize as individual species, which is why counting them as separate individuals is not practical and difficult. They are counted through the relative cover that their nodules occupy. These individuals may have the following factors that allowed them to develop in their present habitat: good interspecific competitor, highly adaptive to harsh environment and efficient distribution of nutrients and essential compounds to the plant itself. However, some species are rare in grasslands. Examples of the rare species in the grassland ecosystem are Desmodium, Sorghum, and Borreria. Based on the intercepted lengths and % cover of the species in Table 4C. 3, the species are rare due to low values it yielded on the parameters (i. e. intercepted lengths, relative cover and etc. ) and thus, regarding it as rare. This species or individuals may be rare due to low interspecific competition and are not yet adapted to their environment. They may also be dispersed randomly and landed on a grassland ecosystem that offers unfavorable conditions to the growth and development of such plants. Species that are quite common in the tropical rainforest are the Palosanto, Caryota cumingii and Cariota rumphiana. Even if the species or individuals are high in numbers compared to other plant species present in that area, we cannot conclude that these plants are the dominant individuals in the tropical rainforest. There may be certain reasons why these individuals are high in numbers. We should include factors such as reproduction rates or processes since these individuals have different ways of propagating their seeds and also the nutrient availability of the given area in the study site that the individuals really thrive for specific nourishment the place or area provides. Also, the forest has a larger area for growth and development of species and a larger area would signify that it could accommodate more species than the grassland ecosystem. The diversity of individuals in an ecosystem is affected by many factors including the area, nutrient availability and presence of biotic interactions such as competition, mutualism and etc. that would allow species or individuals to grow and develop for a higher diversity in an ecosystem. Begon et. Al, 2006) Conclusion Based on the data gathered and computed, we can say that even if the tropical rainforest species or individuals showed lesser dominance on one another, they exhibited a wider variety of species than the tropical grassland organisms. In the computation for the ShannonÃ¢â¬â¢s Indices of Diversity and Evenness, the tropical rainforest is a better candidate for a more diverse and even distribution of species compared to the tropical grassland. The same goes for the Simpson Indices of Dominance, Diversity and Evenness of the tropical rainforest that was more favorable than the tropical grassland. However, presence of viable resources, the area of the ecosystem and specific biotic interactions, such as competition in clumped-distributed plants, greatly affects the diversity of plants since plants tend to disperse and develop in places or areas that have lesser competition and high amount of viable nutrients. Since the tropical rainforest showed most of the characteristics needed for a plant individual to diversify, we can conclude that the tropical rainforest is more diverse and exhibits higher species richness than the tropical grassland ecosystem. However, It is strongly recommended that the increase of transect size or area for research study regarding the diversity and richness of species to validate the errors in this exercise. Introduction A community, as defined in the Dictionary of Ecology (1962), is a group of one or more populations of organisms in a common spatial arrangement or area. How to cite Tropical Rainforests vs Tropical Grasslands, Papers Tropical Rainforests vs Tropical Grasslands Free Essays Discussion Based on the data at Tables 4c. 2 and 4c. 3, it is evident that the tropical rainforest has higher species richness than the tropical grassland ecosystem. We will write a custom essay sample on Tropical Rainforests vs Tropical Grasslands or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, when based in the indices on Diversity, Similarity and Dominance in the tropical grassland and tropical rainforest data, the Simpson Indices favor the data for the tropical rainforest as more diverse than the tropical grassland. The Simpson Indices, as defined in Cuevas et. al (2012), is based on dominance and as the number of dominant species in a community are few, the species has low diversity. The tropical rainforest ecosystem showed a higher index of dominance than the tropical rainforest resulting to the higher values it obtained in the Simpson Indices of Similarity and Evenness. This means that most of the dominant organisms present in the grassland are quite similar and the same due to the higher Simpson Indices on Equitability and Diversity while it is a different case for the forest. First, we need to identify the forest study site as a secondary or primary growth type. From the tables of species richness and number of species seen in an area, we can deduce that the forest study site is a secondary growth forest. Secondary growth forests are products of secondary succession. Secondary succession, as described in Campbell (1996), is the type of succession that occurs when the soil is intact and accommodates a considerable amount of nutrients that can support life. This succession is primarily dependent on the pioneer species (e. g mosses, weeds and etc. ) which tends the soil from its lifeless state. Since pioneer species are mostly small and more adaptable to the harsh environment, we can say that the organisms or individuals present in the forest study site are products of secondary succession. A primary growth tropical rainforest, in turn, has the following characteristics: a barren soil, presence of few organisms that can flourish at extreme conditions (pioneer organisms) and development of communities in a newly formed habitat (Ricklefs, 2008). However, the study site showing the higher species diversity based on Shannon index is the tropical rainforest study site. Comparing data presented at Table 4C. 4, the tropical rainforest showed that even in the degree of randomness of the species, the tropical rainforest showed a wider variety of species compared to the tropical grassland. The Shannon Indices are also dependent on the species richness or the number of species in a given area. (Begon et. al, 2006). Also, some species or individuals are specific in terms of their habitat. This species are sometimes common in a given habitat while rare in another type of habitat. For the common species in the grassland, Imperata cyndrica, Mimosa and Elepantopus are examples of species that are generally common due to their intercepted lengths or relative covers, as seen in Table 4C. 2, which yielded considerable values for it to be classified as common. Grassland individuals form in clusters and are difficult to recognize as individual species, which is why counting them as separate individuals is not practical and difficult. They are counted through the relative cover that their nodules occupy. These individuals may have the following factors that allowed them to develop in their present habitat: good interspecific competitor, highly adaptive to harsh environment and efficient distribution of nutrients and essential compounds to the plant itself. However, some species are rare in grasslands. Examples of the rare species in the grassland ecosystem are Desmodium, Sorghum, and Borreria. Based on the intercepted lengths and % cover of the species in Table 4C. 3, the species are rare due to low values it yielded on the parameters (i. e. intercepted lengths, relative cover and etc. ) and thus, regarding it as rare. This species or individuals may be rare due to low interspecific competition and are not yet adapted to their environment. They may also be dispersed randomly and landed on a grassland ecosystem that offers unfavorable conditions to the growth and development of such plants. Species that are quite common in the tropical rainforest are the Palosanto, Caryota cumingii and Cariota rumphiana. Even if the species or individuals are high in numbers compared to other plant species present in that area, we cannot conclude that these plants are the dominant individuals in the tropical rainforest. There may be certain reasons why these individuals are high in numbers. We should include factors such as reproduction rates or processes since these individuals have different ways of propagating their seeds and also the nutrient availability of the given area in the study site that the individuals really thrive for specific nourishment the place or area provides. Also, the forest has a larger area for growth and development of species and a larger area would signify that it could accommodate more species than the grassland ecosystem. The diversity of individuals in an ecosystem is affected by many factors including the area, nutrient availability and presence of biotic interactions such as competition, mutualism and etc. that would allow species or individuals to grow and develop for a higher diversity in an ecosystem. Begon et. Al, 2006) Conclusion Based on the data gathered and computed, we can say that even if the tropical rainforest species or individuals showed lesser dominance on one another, they exhibited a wider variety of species than the tropical grassland organisms. In the computation for the ShannonÃ¢â¬â¢s Indices of Diversity and Evenness, the tropical rainforest is a better candidate for a more diverse and even distribution of species compared to the tropical grassland. The same goes for the Simpson Indices of Dominance, Diversity and Evenness of the tropical rainforest that was more favorable than the tropical grassland. However, presence of viable resources, the area of the ecosystem and specific biotic interactions, such as competition in clumped-distributed plants, greatly affects the diversity of plants since plants tend to disperse and develop in places or areas that have lesser competition and high amount of viable nutrients. Since the tropical rainforest showed most of the characteristics needed for a plant individual to diversify, we can conclude that the tropical rainforest is more diverse and exhibits higher species richness than the tropical grassland ecosystem. However, It is strongly recommended that the increase of transect size or area for research study regarding the diversity and richness of species to validate the errors in this exercise. Introduction A community, as defined in the Dictionary of Ecology (1962), is a group of one or more populations of organisms in a common spatial arrangement or area. How to cite Tropical Rainforests vs Tropical Grasslands, Essay examples
Friday, May 1, 2020
Question: Discuss the legal aspect of oil and gas management? Answer: Introduction Certain nations that are having huge quantities of natural resources use those resources to maintain their economic stability. They even gather funds that can be used for developmental purposes. In order to do so, the governments of such countries engage into legal contracts with those oil companies that operate in the international oil market and perform various activities associated with the exploration, drilling and processing of such natural resources with the aim of selling the processed resources in the market. The technical, economical and commercial aspects of such oil exploration processes are considered with great importance by both the parties: the government of the countries that are home to such resources and the organizations that are interested in the extraction or drilling procedures. For the exploration of natural resources, both the parties like the government and the oil companies must put efforts on the challenging task of the agreement. One of the challenges is t he negotiation process of such agreements. In most of the developing countries, including Mexico, Bolivia and Kazakhstan, the natural resources like that of oil and natural gas are considered to be the national assets, instead of being the property of any individual or private organization or entity. The legal right over the surface land is not considered when the governments of these nations claim their right over the natural resources that lay beneath the ground: the constitutions of these countries are enshrined by laws that validate this process. In this essay, the legal aspect of oil and gas management is discussed, and the contracts that are about the legality of oil and gas management are discussed. Definition of Contract The voluntary and deliberate agreement between two or more parties that is bound by law is known as a contract (Berthelot, Coulmont Thibault, 2013). In general, contracts are well documented by the competent parties that take part in the agreement, but might also be implied in some other form or be developed as a verbal agreement. The elements that are fundamental for a contract are legality, capacity, consideration and mutual assent (Bhar Mallik, 2012). The following factual elements are to be in consideration for the legal existence of a contract: I. An offer that is being made by one party to another. II. The evidence of the acceptance of the offer. III. A promise regarding the performance of any job IV. A mentionable consideration V. A time span within which the promised performance will be made VI. Various terms and conditions that apply to the process of fulfilling the above mentioned promises. Parameter setting There are some stakeholders for the process of exploration of natural resources. But the fact is that the Government of these nations does not put much attention in the development of such contracts and its negotiation. According to Bilstad, Stenberg, Jensen, Larsen and Toft (2013), the experienced and esteemed lawyers are appointed to look after the legal aspects of these contracts, engineers, and engineering firms are appointed to look after the technical aspects of the contracts being drafted. When there is direct negotiation process, there are successful oil contract generations. However, it is found in general that various complex issues are involved the process of negotiating an oil extraction contract, as such negotiations are more often than not flourished by indecision (Uk.practicallaw.com, 2015). According to Boschee (2013), the indecisions being associated with the lack of knowledge of the location of probable oil field, the lack of any estimation of the amount of oil that could be drilled out of the oil wells and / or the lack of capability of the parties taking part in the contract to make predictions about the future of the market. The experience of domain experts, along with judgmental power are essentially required so as find out the priority and importance of each of these factors, such that a balanced contract can be prepared: however it should also be considered that no such contract is identical to another, as the importance and the priority of the above m entioned factors keep on changing from time to time and from place to place. During the process of negotiation of oil contract, certain factors are to be kept in consideration. These are the probable costs associated with the operational activities of oil drilling, the fluctuations of the market, the probable size of the oil fields and the estimated quantity of oil and natural gases that could be drilled from the oil wells and so on and so forth. Negotiation issues Negotiation process issues are given below: 1) Environmental as well as social issues are not considered for suing the negotiation process. 2) Natural resources conflict zone. Time Zone Factor For the process of negotiation of oil contracts, time responsive factors include: I. The price of crude oil in the international market II. Socio-political and economic condition of the country and III. The inter-dependency of the above mentioned factors To confirm the various changes, the oil contracts must be defined in such a way that it can change itself from time to time. Indigenous communities The interests of indigenous groups should be considered by the government during the negotiation process. The various indigenous communities, who are socially and economically affected by the oil contracts, are drafted in between the governments of the nations and the oil companies demand compensations (Dauwalter, 2013). Transparency When the terms conditions and prices are quoted in the contracts, are disclosed to the public, the indigenous communities of the nation can accept legal contracts between oil companies and government. It must be ensured that the minimum level of transparency is maintained at the process of oil contract negotiation. Interest Conflict During the process of negotiation, there is a chance of conflict in regards to the interest of the Governmental part. This is because the government is considered to be one of the parties who is involved in oil contract (Foster, 2012). One hand of the government tries in profit maximization of the nation. The other hand tries to control the interest of the indigenous communities of the country. Expert Negotiators The extraction process of oil and natural gas involves certain aspects like economical, legal, technological and environmental. The government must employ experienced domain experts to look after these aspects of the oil contracts, as the international oil employ such experts so as to conduct the negotiation process. Oil contract types Various types of oil contracts that occur in between oil companies and the government are as follows: License Agreements License Agreements and Concession Agreements process let the oil companies to earn exclusive rights to develop infrastructure, oil fields exploration, and oil extraction and sell oil in the international market. The company pays a license fee to the government, which the government retains, not withstanding production (Skea, Chaudry and Wang, 2012). Then the production starts, the company pays income taxes and royalty to the government. Thus, such contracts put the government in the advantageous position. Production sharing agreement (PSA) PSA agreements gather the process of oil and natural gas exploration for both the parties that are involved in the contract. The government and the oil company that is involved in the operational activities of drilling of oil are dealt with PSA (Garren Brinkmann, 2012). The government also has to take the burden of risks that are associated with the process of oil extraction. However, the government is relieved of the task of taking decisions regarding the operations of the oil fields as this part of the operational activity is considered as the responsibility of the oil companies. Thus, it can be said that such types of agreements mandate the participation of the government in the process of oil extraction. Joint Venture Agreement The profits that are generated from the exploration of oil and natural gas are shared by both the parties who are involved in the contract according to this contract. The government and the oil company that is involved in the operational activities of drilling of oil are involved in JVA. The government also has to take the burden of risks that are associated with the process of oil extraction (Samosir, Popineau and Lechon, 2013). However, the government is relieved of the task of taking decisions regarding the operations of the oil fields as this part of the operational activity is considered as the responsibility of the oil companies. Thus, it can be said that such types of agreements mandate the participation of the government in the process of oil extraction. Service agreements The process of disbursement is facilitated by the participation of oil companies and the government. These agreements are not found to be common in oil and gas exploration fields. Terms of contract Work plan When companies realize that a particular plan might not be profitable for them, they tend to delay or shelve the projects. A possible safeguard that the government can introduce against such strategies implemented by the oil companies is that they can clearly state those circumstances only under which the companies will be allowed to shelve or delay it (Lefsrud, Graves Phillips, 2013). Stabilization Clause Drafting of oil contracts must be done in that particular way that ensures stabilization clause is not included in contracts. These clauses deal with the restriction of implementation of certain legislative clauses of the nation for operational activities of oil companies (Gobyr, 2013). Parties The drafting of oil contracts must be done in such a way that it does not make the government be one of the contact parties. This strategy is taken so as to not bear any direct and unlimited liability of the contract. On the other hand, the government can participate in the contract by the process of making the government enterprise a direct party involved in the contract. Mission of government in negotiation process During the process of negotiating any oil contract with international oil corporations, the government should consider the development of the country as the sole interest and mission. The government should also try to include such clauses in the contracts that would ensure that the resources of the companies are utilized properly so that the infrastructure of the country is developed (Haber, 2013). The following section provides some insight into those factors that the government should consider during the negotiation process: Employment Projects regarding oil exploration require a large number of manpower. To employ the members of indigenous project community, the government must involve clauses for maintaining it. Sustainable Development It must be kept in mind by the Government that oil and natural gas is limited. This exploration of such non-renewable sources of energy must be done according to requirement. Rate of extraction of non-renewable sources of energy must be limited to one particular oil company (Krupa, 2013). Dispute Resolution Mechanism For the process of dispute resolution, the various mechanisms that are used must be stated unambiguously in the drafted contract (Wilson, 2013). The most common methods of dispute methods, as mentioned in oil contracts are: I. The parties that are involved in any oil contract that approach any court of law in the case of disputes: however it should also be considered that most court proceedings are highly time-consuming processes. II. International Commercial Arbitration laws can also be used so as to resolve disputes regarding those contracts that are signed between international oil companies and governments of various nations. Conclusion and recommendation Government of such countries that have very large natural resources reserves like natural gas, oil and coal face problem related to the nature of the contract and its clauses. Most of the organizations that are associated with the process of extraction of oil and natural gases operate in the international domain and specialize in this particular sector, they are much more experienced in such negotiating process that are used to determine the type of contract being made and the clauses that are being mentioned in the contracts. Such companies indulge in all necessary procedures that would lead to the reduction of costs on the part that they often tailor their negotiation strategies according to the political, economical and social conditions that prevail in the impugned country (Rawlins, 2013). During the negotiation process, very often than not, the oil companies express such behavioral traits that might be easily considered as cynical, inflexible and aggressive. For these reasons, it is very necessary for the Governments to ensure strict procedures and policies to strategies the contract process of negotiation. According to Rawlins (2013), three most important strategies that the nations follow for the adaptation of natural resources to negotiate contract with oil companies are as follows: I. Forming indigenous state-owned companies that would handle the process of exploration of natural resources, processing of the crude resources and proper marketing of the products. Countries like Venezuela, Mexico, Saudi Arabia and Oman use such strategies to exploit their natural resources. II. Inviting international oil companies to participate in the process of exploiting the natural resources. Countries like United Kingdom, Canada, and Russia employ such strategies to collect funds for their developmental procedures. III. Employing a combination of the above mentioned strategies, as done by companies like Indonesia, Nigeria, and Kazakhstan. Governments of other nation must choose at least one strategy from above to ensure suitability of political and socio-economic culture in the nation for engaging international oil companies in oil contracts. Reference List Berthelot, S., Coulmont, M., Thibault, K. (2013). Sustainability Content on Oil and Gas Company Websites. Business And Management Research, 2(1). doi:10.5430/bmr.v2n1p94 Bhar, R., Mallik, G. (2012). Inflation uncertainty, growth uncertainty, oil prices, and output growth in the UK. Empir Econ, 45(3), 1333-1350. doi:10.1007/s00181-012-0650-9 Bilstad, T., Stenberg, E., Jensen, B., Larsen, T., Toft, M. (2013). Offshore drilled cuttings management. AGH Drilling, Oil, Gas, 30(1), 47. doi:10.7494/drill.2013.30.1.47 Boschee, P. (2013). Tanker Conversions to FPSO: Design and Integrity Management Challenges. Oil And Gas Facilities, 2(05), 16-21. doi:10.2118/1013-0016-ogf Dauwalter, D. (2013). Fish assemblage associations and thresholds with existing and projected oil and gas development. Fish Manag Ecol, 20(4), 289-301. doi:10.1111/fme.12007 Foster, P. (2012). Shale Gas Exploration Onshore UK, Energy Institute Lecture 21st Nov 2011. Energy Environment, 23(1), 207-208. doi:10.1260/0958-305x.23.1.207 Garren, S., Brinkmann, R. (2012). Linking greenhouse gas emissions to greenhouse gas reduction policies at the local government level in Florida. Greenhouse Gas Measurement And Management, 2(2-3), 146-161. doi:10.1080/20430779.2012.729987 Gobyr, I. (2013). Forming of the effective management system of repair service of oil and gas enterprises. RAJ, 24(2). doi:10.15535/73 Haber, I. (2013). Improving of the management system of material streams of oil and gas enterprises. RAJ, 24(2). doi:10.15535/86 Herbane, B. (2012). Exploring Crisis Management in UK Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises. J Contingencies Crisis Man, 21(2), 82-95. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12006 Krupa, J. (2013). Optimal supply chain management in oil, gas, and power generation. Energy, 63, 400-401. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2013.10.024 Lefebvre, L. (2013). Smart Battery Thermal Management for PHEV Efficiency. Oil Gas Science And Technology Revue DIFP Energies Nouvelles, 68(1), 149-164. doi:10.2516/ogst/2012076 Lefsrud, L., Graves, H., Phillips, N. (2013). "Dirty Oil, Ethical Oil: Categorical Illegitimacy and the Struggle over the Alberta Oil Sands". Academy Of Management Proceedings, 2013(1), 13283-13283. doi:10.5465/ambpp.2013.13283abstract Rawlins, H. (2013). Sand Management Methodologies for Sustained Facilities Operations. Oil And Gas Facilities, 2(05), 27-34. doi:10.2118/1013-0027-ogf Samosir, T., Popineau, D., Lechon, A. (2013). Implementing a Deepwater-Pipeline-Management System. Oil And Gas Facilities, 2(06), 86-91. doi:10.2118/165586-pa Skea, J., Chaudry, M., Wang, X. (2012). The role of gas infrastructure in promoting UK energy security. 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Sunday, March 22, 2020
The man with the three lives All witches are selfish, the Queen had said. But Tiffanfs Third Thoughts said: Then turn selfishness Into a weapon! Make all things yours! Make other lives and dreams and hopes yours! Protect them! Save them! Bring them into the sheepfold! Walk the gale for them! Keep away the wolf! My dreams! My brother! My family! My land! My world! How dare you try to take these things, because they are mine! Ã¢â¬ Quote by Terry Pratchett, The Wee Free Men (Discworld, 30) (The famous author Sir Terry Pratchett) Terence David John lso called Terry Pratchett is an English author. He was born in 1948 April 28 in Beaconsfield, England. Terry Pratchett Is an only child. His Discworld series Is the most famous books of all the books he had published. Terry Pratchett began to write when he was 13-years old and his first book was published when Terry Pratchett was In the age of the 23. We will write a custom essay sample on Terry pratchett or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Terry Pratchett is educated as a Journalist. Though his work with interviewing celebrity could he publishes books because he got to know some people In the publishing business. In his everyday life he writes, goes walks, sits at his omputer, he say. Terry Pratchett is known for wearing long pointed black hats. His style has been described as more that of urban cowboy than city genl . In 2008 Terry Pratchett was given the title Sr. Terry Pratchetts daughter Is also a writer. Terry Pratchett writes fantasy novels and in 1996 he was the most top selling author in the 0K. Terry Pratchett Is now the second most read author In the 0K. HIS books are translated to 37 different languages. In the U. S Terry Pratchett is number seventh in the list over not American most read author. Terry Pratchett writes two books a year and he had written 43 books in the Discworld series until now. When Terry Pratchett was young his dream was to be an astronomer one day and it is maybe why he has created his own worldview/unlverse in his Discworld books the Earth has a shape as a disc and four elephants are standing under the earth to lift it. The four elephants stand on a big turtle that swims in the ocean that is under the turtle. It something who Is described In the first book of the Discworld series The Colour of Magic, from 1983. Terry Pratchett has also invented his own words that he uses in his Discworld books. Terry is not writes not only literature for adults but also for young and children. He writes also ballads. 3 The Discworld books are about a world where the Impossible can be possible and where supernatural beings takes place and new words are invented. It is like two worlds meet, All of this is told In a completely different way with new methods of writing in which the author describes something that you cannot imagine but still you get an illustration In the head by what he means and it is very strange.
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Marketing Plan For an Innovative New Product Target Market The identification of a target market is important before the launch of a new product. When launching the Ã¢â¬Å"cycloneÃ¢â¬ brand, the target market constitutes a group of people who will be interested in buying the product (Hiam 2). Identifying the target market for the Ã¢â¬Å"cycloneÃ¢â¬ brand is not an easy thing, especially because the product contains many features which appeal to different market segments.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Marketing Plan For an Innovative New Product specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, in identifying the right target market for the Ã¢â¬Å"cycloneÃ¢â¬ product, several factors ought to be considered. First, it would be crucial to identify the demographical characteristics of the target population. The demographical characteristics would include information such as the populationÃ¢â¬â¢s age bracket, income levels, educational background, gender and su ch like factors. Secondly, it will be crucial to identify the geographical location of the intended customer group. The geographical location of a market would determine the demand for a given product. For instance, it would be useless selling jackets in a geographical location with a desert-like climate. In the same manner, certain geographical locations are known to demand certain goods and services more than others. For instance, the Puma shoe company has been known to perform well in Latin American and European countries when compared to the rest of the world (Hiam 19). Lastly, in identifying the right target market for Ã¢â¬Å"cycloneÃ¢â¬ , the psychographic characteristics of the population have to be considered. These psychographic elements will include the personality and behavioral traits of the target population group. The collective interests of the population group will also be included in this analysis. Comprehensively, these elements will have to be analyzed to establ ish how they complement the sale of Ã¢â¬Å"cycloneÃ¢â¬ products. Product Positioning Positioning a brand in the market is a critical component for market success. Its importance cannot be underestimated because brand positioning is more than the productÃ¢â¬â¢s sales. In fact, product positioning is a promise to the customers to explain how the product fulfills their needs (through the elements it guarantees them) (Hiam 23). To establish an effective brand position strategy for Cyclone, it would be crucial to determine the core values of the brand. For instance, it will be crucial to establish if the brand thrives because of excellent quality or good pricing. Once these values are determined, pursuing the same values in the market will amount to a good brand positioning strategy.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More IMC Campaign In coming up with the best IMC plan f or Ã¢â¬Å"cycloneÃ¢â¬ , several factors need to be considered. First, a thorough promotion opportunity analysis should be done to establish the competitive analysis, opportunity analysis, target market analysis and customer analysis of the brand. From this point, corporate strategies should be formulated. The corporate strategies include corporate image strategies, brand development strategies, brand positioning strategies, distribution strategies, business-to-business strategies, public relations strategies, and evaluation strategies. The last process of developing an IMC campaign will be to identify an integrated market communications strategy plan. This plan includes coming up with a set of objectives for the IMC plan and a budget to achieve the intended objectives of the IMC plan. The first objective will be centered on consumer needs and requirements while the second objective will be centered on determining the productÃ¢â¬â¢s distribution channel. The last objective of the plan will be centered on determining the right business-to-business strategy (Hiam 53). Price Determination Determining the right price for the Ã¢â¬Å"cycloneÃ¢â¬ product depends on several strategies. For instance, the distribution channel of the product is bound to determine the overall price of the product because longer distribution channels are bound to command high prices and short distribution channels amount to low prices. However, the Ã¢â¬Å"cycloneÃ¢â¬ brand will be produced with a high-end market in mind. To keep the prices affordable for a wider consumer group, a shorter distribution channel will be chosen. Also, the price of the Ã¢â¬Å"cycloneÃ¢â¬ product will be determined by the cost of production and the price of substitute and complementary products in the market. Obviously, the price of the product cannot be sold less than the opportunity cost and therefore, the product will be priced higher than the product cost. This cost will be compounded with the pro ductÃ¢â¬â¢s distribution cost, to come up with a reasonable mark-up price for the product. The price of substitute and complementary products will also determine the price of the Ã¢â¬Å"cycloneÃ¢â¬ product. If the price of substitute products will be low, the price of cyclone will also have to be comparatively low. The same is also true if the price of the substitute product is high because if the price of the substitute product is high, it will be easy to sell the product at a reasonably high price since there will be minimal price competition (Hiam 23).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Marketing Plan For an Innovative New Product specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More CRM System Designing an effective CRM system will have to be done with the customers in mind. This strategy is crucial because customer feedback will be important in developing future product improvement strategies. The provision of customer service th rough the CRM system will also be done with a keen emphasis on the medium for service offing. Customer development will be achieved if the CRM is designed to have a feedback mechanism where customers can communicate with the company and inform them of any areas where customer development can be improved. The internet can be an effective tool in ensuring the goals of the above strategies are realized (Hiam 2). Hiam, Alexander. Marketing for Dummies. New York: For Dummies, 2009. Print.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Managing People - Essay Example Therefore culture is defined as Ã¢â¬Ëthe way we do things around hereÃ¢â¬â¢. Analysis Corporate culture is usually described as Ã¢â¬Ëthe way we do things around hereÃ¢â¬â¢. It is considered as a set of rules that each and everyone in the organisation learns to follow and thereby influences the behaviour of the employees. Corporate culture often determines the behaviour of the people within business and also the level of motivation within its employees. The culture of the organisation can influence how traditional or forward thinking is the way the company operates (Dooley, 2005, p.139). It is the feel of the organisation which is quickly picked up the new members. Culture is Ã¢â¬Ëthe way we do things around hereÃ¢â¬â¢. It is a powerful tool and is likely to become more visible when organisations implements new strategies. Thus its human nature to resist change in the way they do things and similarly its nature of the human to change the culture in which they work and live (Carroll, 2009, p.95). The key drivers of Ã¢â¬Ëthe way we do things around hereÃ¢â¬â¢ are multiple. The behaviour of the management is one of the major drivers of culture as the people observe the behaviour of the management rather than on what they say. ... 31-33). Organisational culture or corporate culture is set of values, beliefs and assumptions which is shared by member of an organisation and also teaches the new member of the organisation to think feel and act in the right way. The cultural perspective of every organisation believes that every organisation develop a unique mixture of standards, values, practise and presumptions of how things should be conducted which later becomes habit (Ashman & Hull, 2011, p.134). Organisational culture comprises of two important components, shared values and assumptions. Values are defined as a conscious perception of what is good and bad or what is right or wrong, values implies what is ought to do. It refers to as a moral compass which directly motivates the decision. Values that exist within organisation are referred to as shared values. These are the values that employees have in common and within the organisation. Assumptions are beliefs or perception that have worked for the organisation in the past and are considered to be correct way to think and act towards any problems and opportunities. These assumptions are taken for granted and are difficult to change (Mcshane, 2008, p. 492). Organisational culture is the outcome of set of dynamics and also acts as an influence of those dynamics. The jargon, Ã¢â¬Ëthe way we do things around hereÃ¢â¬â¢ is a powerful insight in a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture (Stanford, 2011, pp. 1). Understanding the concept of culture is important for a manager in order to adapt more easily to their new surroundings. Thus managers should learn how to adapt to an environment so that the manager can work effectively. But despite of the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s strong desire to understand and adopt
Monday, February 3, 2020
Dropout Rates In Educational Institutions Of Different Countries - Research Paper Example Ã¢â¬Å"Although high school graduates are attending college in record numbers, four in 10 are not adequately prepared for the course load that awaits them and are thus forced into remedial classes when they start college. This fact contributes to a staggering number of students pursuing a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree -- 42 percent, according to the infographic -- to drop out.Ã¢â¬ (Huffington Post) Course load: It seems that many students somehow manage to finish their high school but are not prepared for the challenging studies ahead. College education for such students becomes really tough which eventually forces many of them to drop out. In such cases, the academic performance of students during their high school comes into question because apparently, it did not prepare them for the tough studies ahead. Although in colleges remedial classes are offered to such students that are not doing well in their courses, if they have a weak grasp over their chosen courses then there is a possibility that they would not be able to pull it through college. Joining remedial classes requires extra effort on the part of the students and this may be a problem for those students that are working part-time or have other family-related responsibilities. The stress of the course-load for students with below-average academic performance may be overwhelming to an extent that they drop out of college/university. The percentage of such students is quite high-42%. This fact either pinpoints to the poor quality of primary and elementary education imparted in schools; or other problems like language barriers, which are more common in non-native students or students belonging to ethnic minorities.
Sunday, January 26, 2020
The Effectiveness Of The Jigsaw Approach The purpose of this research was to study and analyze the effectiveness of the jigsaw method and other cooperative learning strategies for students with learning disabilities. A 20-question survey about cooperative learning strategies, including the jigsaw, was used to determine educators knowledge of the jigsaw approach and the effectiveness they have had using it with students with and without a disability. Research findings indicate that educators believe cooperative learning does have a positive impact on their students learning new material. Concerns still exist with educators knowledge of cooperative learning strategies and how to properly implement them in the classroom setting. Cooperative learning strategies have been used to improve student achievement for many years. The effectiveness of these strategies, for students with and without disabilities, has been debated. The jigsaw method is a specific strategy that involves students working together and teaching their peers new material. Educators knowledge of cooperative learning is an important aspect for implementing specific strategies, like the jigsaw method. This study is focused on educators knowledge and their opinion on the effectiveness of cooperative learning for students with and without disabilities. The concern of a need for professional development was also examined as a way to increase knowledge of cooperative learning strategies. Review of Literature Cooperative learning is a strategy that has been a part of the education world for many years. It was developed out of the theory of constructivism. It has expanded from its original design of just having students work together with a partner or small group. The effectiveness of cooperative learning has been demonstrated through numerous studies as an effective strategy to increase students comprehension (Bigge Stump, 1999, Law, 2011, Santos Rego Del Mar Lorenzo Moledo, 2005). Law (2011) found, that students higher-order reading performance could be enhanced through engaging in cooperative learning activities with well-planned scaffolding by their teachers (p. 416). Cooperative learning has traditionally been looked at in the general education classroom, but it can also be used for working with students with special needs. Numerous strategies fall under the category of cooperative learning. One particular research-based strategy that has demonstrated effectiveness for increasing student understanding is the jigsaw method. The jigsaw falls under cooperative learning because it allows students to work together to learn new material. According to Bigge and Stump (1999), for cooperative learning to be effective, students need ample opportunities to solve problems as a group first and then resort to teacher assistance (p. 121). GÃ ¶Ã §er (2010) suggests the jigsaw approach should be used mainly in teaching grammar and literature. The jigsaw approach is just one of many cooperative learning strategies that has demonstrated effectiveness, but does have weaknesses as a strategy for students in general education as well in special education. The jigsaw approach was first developed by Elliot Aronson (1971) to help students develop their social and cooperative skills. The original purpose was to deal with desegregation issues in Texas, but as it was being implemented, it was discovered that students were gaining a better understanding of the content. There have been numerous studies since then to demonstrate its effectiveness in increasing student understanding. To implement the jigsaw approach, a step-by-step process needs to be followed. Step one is that each student must be a member of two groups. The first group is the home group where students will begin and end the activity and there should be no more than five students in each group. The main responsibility of each member in home group is to teach a portion of the assigned reading/work. Once students are assigned their section they will move to a second group called the expert group. During this step, students discuss the reading/work and gain an understanding until they feel comfortable with presenting the material to their home group. In the final step, students return to their home group and take turns presenting the information they became experts on and listen as other students present their material. In the end, all students have been taught the reading/work without having to do all the work on their own (Fisher, Brozo, Frey, Ivey, 2007). Research provides guidelines for how long students should work in their expert group before they return to their home group. Most studies support part of a given class period, but one study suggests much longer. Young, Hadgraft, and Young (1997) support using shorter periods of time between bringing the expert groups back to their home groups because when the time was expanded they encountered more problems in getting all the material together. The jigsaw approach has also been evaluated for use in the online setting, which is becoming more important to the educational system due to an increase in online education. Weidman and Bishop (2009) found mixed results when using the jigsaw in an online classroom. The struggle came with the individual accountability component of the assignment that was amplified in the online setting. One positive was that it demonstrated increases in student understanding. Benefits of the Jigsaw The jigsaw approach has demonstrated numerous benefits for students of multiple ability levels. Santos Rego and Del Mar Lorenzo Moledo (2005) indicate that the jigsaw technique improved academic performance with students at the beginning of secondary school (ages 12-14 years). The authors connect this finding to students having a higher self-esteem and self-efficacy. They demonstrated that the jigsaw method can be effective at the high school level with both general education and special education students. A similar strength of the jigsaw is that it can do more than just teach students content material. It can help motivate them and teach them to enjoy learning which can increase self-esteem and self-efficacy. Mengduo and Xiaoling (2010) concluded that, The jigsaw classroom reduces students reluctance and anxiety to participate in the classroom activities while increasing self-esteem and self-confidence (p. 122). This is important to learn at the high school level because students are preparing for their future and need to learn how to participate in group activities. Efe and Efe (2011) analyzed how students assigned as group leaders in the jigsaw helped motivate the rest of the group. Results suggested that when given the title of group leader students worked to motivate other students to complete their work. Education is not just about learning the four core content areas (math, science, English, and social studies), it is also about learning how to interact in society and be a produ ctive citizen. In addition to helping students learn new material, the jigsaw helps build social skills. Anderson and Palmer (2001) reports that the jigsaw approach is backed by research showing it to motivate students to work together, share ideas, pursue common goals, and develop self-esteem. Learning the material, being able to work in groups, and knowing how to motivate people are all positive attributes for success in the work place. Whether it is learning material, building self-esteem, or knowing how to motivate, the jigsaw can be utilized to help students with and without disabilities. A final strength of the jigsaw is that it can decrease students anxiety levels. Many students deal with anxiety throughout their educational careers either in a specific subject, in all subjects, or with test anxiety. Oludipe and Awokoy (2010) examined students anxiety levels in relation to participation in chemistry class. Students were divided into two groups; one in a cooperative learning classroom that used the jigsaw approach and the other using a traditional lecture approach. The results showed that students in the cooperative classroom had lower levels of anxiety due to the positive interdependence attribute of the jigsaw method. Positive interdependence allows students to see that success is dependent on their effort and the contributions of the group. Oludipe and Awokoy (2010) conclude that students became more confident and felt secure participating actively in chemistry lessons (p. 35). The jigsaw method also provides a way to help students become active in classroom activities and/or lessons. When students are anxious or sometimes even afraid to contribute, they are going to miss information that is needed to fully understand the material. The jigsaw allows students to work with one another and develop a sense of being needed. When students are needed by their peers, they are more likely to do the work and contribute to the group, and when they do the work, they are less anxious to become involved in future activities. It can also be used early in the school year to help students get to know one another, as it is useful for social skill development as well. Limitations of the Jigsaw The use of the jigsaw approach does have several limitations as well. The first relates to the teacher. A jigsaw is dependent on a teacher explaining how to properly implement the approach and if not done properly, the likelihood of success is limited. Souvignier and Kronenberger (2007) aimed to determine the effectiveness of the jigsaw approach at the elementary level by comparing three conditions of instruction (i.e., jigsaw, jigsaw with a supplementary questioning training, and teacher guided instruction). The results showed that students used the jigsaw method with average results. The authors determined that younger, elementary-aged students could benefit from the jigsaw, but only if certain conditions were met. The authors suggest that, cooperative learning in younger children needs as well explicit (preparing experts as teachers; questioning and explanation training) as implicit (fostering interdependence by adequate learning materials) support (p. 769). The jigsaw seems to be limited in its use with elementary students due to the fact that it requires more specific training for the students before it can be used as successfully as it is for older students which can be a deterrent due to time limitations and classroom demands. Another limitation of the jigsaw approach is the actual data that supports the use of the jigsaw method. As previously noted, the jigsaw approach can be time consuming and difficult to implement. A study examined the jigsaw approach and found that students using the jigsaw performed better than students using a traditional teaching method (Dollard, Mahoney, 2010). Then results showed only a 0.9% increase on a test favoring the jigsaw method. Thus Dollard and Mahoney (2010) concluded, 0.9% is not enough of a difference to conclude with certainty, that the Jigsaw Method is a stronger academic tool than the traditional method of lecture and note taking (p. 12). The participants were in the 8th grade, supporting the finding that the jigsaw method may not be as effective with younger students. A final limitation is related to the findings of Souvignier and Kronenberger (2007), in that it deals with the proper implementation of the jigsaw steps by younger students. This study involved a group of seventh graders who, according to their science teachers, had experience using the jigsaw approach. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect on student learning of the jigsaw approach and another cooperative learning approach. Results showed that neither approach enhanced students understanding of specific science concepts (Zacharia, Xenofontos, Manoli, 2011). However, a major component of the jigsaw approach was left out by the students involved in the jigsaw method. According to Zacharia and colleagues (2011), In particular, after the students returned to their home groups from their expert groups, they engaged in a working mode similar to the TCA one, in which students visit together all the websites, discuss and take notes, rather than teaching each other about the portion of websites they were assigned to them for study (p. 417). These results again support the idea that younger students have a more difficult time following the precise steps involved in the jigsaw method. Teachers in the study reported that students knew the jigsaw method, but when put into action, they skipped the important step of teaching the other members of their group about the area they became an expert on. The step of teaching information to the other students is the main component in the jigsaw approach. If this step was left out, it is clear the students in this study were actually not comfortable or skilled in using the jigsaw approach. Cooperative learning has its roots in the constructivist approach, which entails using experience-based activities. The jigsaw approach allows students to experience learning and contribute to their learning. Tamah (2007) states, Students are encouraged to learn from their fellow students in their expert team and when they go back to their home team they are encouraged to teach one another the material they have worked on in the expert team (p. 13) which describes exactly how the jigsaw approach should work in a classroom. This approach sounds ideal for teachers because it allows the students to be actively engaged in teaching one another. The jigsaw also allows the teacher to be a facilitator, not a director in the classroom, which is a trend in schools today. As outlined, the jigsaw has multiple strengths and limitations. The overall strength is that it is most effective with older students and effective in motivating students to learn as well as to become more confident in their abilities. The jigsaw is an approach that needs to be taught by the teacher and even modeled to ensure every student fully understands the process. A major limitation of the jigsaw is that if it is not fully and properly implemented, students will not gain an understanding of the material they need and perhaps even miss information because it was not taught to them by their other group members. This weakness tends to be amplified when dealing with younger, elementary students. Current research on the jigsaw approach has mainly been done at the middle to high school level with a balance in learning abilities. However, there are many questions that still exist with regard to the effectiveness of the jigsaw approach. Students with Disabilities One remaining question that is becoming more important to schools, relates to the effectiveness of the jigsaw approach for students with learning disabilities. McMaster and Fuchs (2002) concluded that, studies conducted in special education classrooms were associated with smaller effects for cooperative learning (mean effect size = 0.27), than those implemented in regular education classrooms (mean effect size = 0.44) (p. 115). McMaster and Fuchs (2002) study supports the premise that cooperative learning can have an impact on student achievement for both students with and without disabilities. The aforementioned question can be answered with research focused on teachers knowledge of cooperative learning, specifically the jigsaw approach. Additional questions focus on the use of jigsaw in co-teaching environments, whether the jigsaw is as effective for students with disabilities as it is for those without disabilities, and whether teachers understand cooperative learning strategies a nd if not, is there a need for professional development. There are several questions that need to be answered before an absolute answer can be given regarding the effectiveness of the jigsaw approach. Current literature supports and questions the jigsaw, but the questions posed above may become more important to the future of education as the wave of inclusion continues to change the way students are educated in the United States of America. Method The principle issue investigated in this study was how effective cooperative learning could be for students with learning disabilities. The knowledge educators have about cooperative learning strategies is key to proper implementation leading to increased student achievement. This study assessed educators knowledge of cooperative learning, specific strategies (jigsaw, think-pair-share, and numbered heads together), and the need for professional development. Participants This research was conducted with teachers in a Southeastern Ohio school district and with members from a cohort of masters level preservice teachers. Participants were recruited through email invitations sent to a Southeastern Ohio school district (n=98) and members of a masters level cohort of preservice teachers (n=20). A total of 54 surveys were submitted for a response rate of 46%. All participants were currently educators or working on licensure to enter the field of education with years of teaching experience ranging from 0 to 35 years. The participants reported a variety of teaching experiences, ranging from elementary to college. Eighteen of the 53 participants reported having experience teaching special education and 47 of the 53 participants (87%) reported they work with students with special needs daily. Instrument The aforementioned survey (Appendix A) was constituted of 20 questions, both open-ended and forced-choice, including demographic information, educators knowledge of cooperative learning and specific strategies, and opinions regarding cooperative learnings effectiveness for students with and without disabilities. The fourth question asked educators to define cooperative learning. This information was important because of the varying definitions of cooperative learning. The survey asked how often participants used cooperative learning in general, and then for specific cooperative learning strategies. The survey asked about their understanding of the jigsaw method. Additional questions related to preferred cooperative learning strategies and their opinion regarding how effective cooperative learning is for students with and without disabilities. The survey concluded with a question to determine the need for professional development in the area of cooperative learning. Procedures After receiving approval from the universitys Internal Review Board, the researcher obtained approval from the school districts superintendent to distribute the survey via email. One email was sent to the educators in the school district, while another email was sent to the members of the masters level cohort of preservice teachers. The participants were informed that the online survey (created using Qualtrics, an online survey tool) would take no longer than 10 minutes to complete and were completely anonymous. Two reminder emails were sent asking those that had not completed the survey to do so. Results After the survey was closed, the researcher analyzed the qualitative and quantitative data collected with the survey. The qualitative data was used to determine educators definitions of cooperative learning and the jigsaw approach, as well as educators preferred strategy they used in their classrooms. Quantitative data determined how often specific cooperative learning strategies were used in the classroom, as well as ratings for how effective teachers believe cooperative learning is for students with and without disabilities. The results from 54 surveys are reported, but not every question was answered by each participant so the response rates vary by question. The results demonstrated a variety of responses in how educators defined cooperative learning as well as in their understanding of the jigsaw method. Overall, educators agreed that cooperative learning strategies are effective for helping both students with and without disabilities. Table 1 shows how often participants use cooperative learning in their classroom. The mean value is 2.26 (between 1-2 times per week and 3-4 times per week), with the majority of participants (53%) using cooperative learning 1-2 times per week. Table 2 shows how often participants use the jigsaw method in their classroom. The mean value is 1.31 (between 0 times per week and 1-2 times per week) with the majority of participants (69%) choosing 0 times. Table 3 shows how often participants use the think-pair-share method. The mean is 2.00 (1-2 times per week), with the majority (51%) of choosing 1-2 times per week. Table 4 shows how often participants use the numbered heads together method. The mean score is a 2.4 (between less than once a month and once a month), with the majority (45%) of participants choosing never. Table 5 shows how effective participants think cooperative learning is for students without disabilities. The mean score is 4.10 (between somewhat effective and very effective), with the majority (59%) of participants choosing somewhat effective. The participants were asked to give an explanation for their rating and there were several similarities in their wording. Many referred to it being dependent on the type and age of the students. There was also a common response that not all students are able to learn in groups and need the opportunity to work independently. Table 6 shows participants perceptions of the effectiveness of cooperative learning for students with disabilities. The mean score is 3.96 (between neither effective or ineffective and somewhat effective), with the majority (51%) choosing somewhat effective. The participants were asked to give an explanation for their rating and resulting in several similarities in their responses. Several participants indicated the effectiveness was dependent on students willingness to work with others. Others indicated it was effective because it helped build students social skills through interaction with other students. Defining Cooperative Learning Each participant was asked how he/she defined cooperative learning. Fifty-one out of the 54 participants (94%) completed this question. Of the 51, 34 mentioned that cooperative learning was focused on student grouping or students working together, while three participants defined it as teachers working together. The remaining responses did not specify who was involved in working together, but just that it involved working in groups or together to solve a problem. Understanding the Jigsaw Method. Educators were asked to explain their understanding of the jigsaw method. Forty-four educators answered this question, and off the 44, 17 (39%) explained the jigsaw as putting students into one group to learn material and then join another group to teach the material they learned in their first group. Nine of the 44 (20%) responded as not knowing what it is. The others explained the jigsaw as group work, but did not specify the nature of the groups. Why Some Do Not Use Cooperative Learning Educators who responded that they do not use cooperative learning were asked to explain why. Nine participants responded that they do not use any form of cooperative learning strategy. Four of the nine mentioned time as being the main reason for not using cooperative learning strategies. Other responses included lack of skills by students and forgetting to use them. One response indicated the individual was not familiar with enough strategies and how to implement them. Professional Development for Cooperative Learning. The remaining survey questions dealt with the need for professional development in order to learn more about cooperative learning. Fifty-one participants responses to a question asking whether they would benefit from professional development. Twenty-eight responded, yes (55%), 17 said no (33%), and six responded that they might benefit from professional development. This question was followed by another asking why or why not they would want professional development. Many responses indicated participants have learned about cooperative learning, but forget the specific strategies. Other responses indicated that there is always room to learn new ideas and methods for the classroom. The final question asked participants to indicate where they would like to receive professional development. Of the 34 participants who completed this question, 24 would prefer a workshop with the remaining respondents indicating a webinar as the preferred method of delivery for professional development. Discussion The results indicate there is a concern with educators knowledge about cooperative learning and how to implement specific strategies. The educators had a basic understanding, but did not fully understand cooperative learning. Many explained it as simple group work, when it involves more of an understanding that it is student-led and student-centered instruction. The participants were also asked to give their preferred cooperative learning strategy and only 14 of 49 or 29% were able to identify a specific strategy outside of normal grouping. The participants also had a basic understanding of the jigsaw method, but did not all fully understand the idea of creating a home group and an expert group and students are focused on learning new material. The other area that demonstrates a weakness in their knowledge is the fact that 32 of the 51 or 63% of the participants indicated they would benefit from professional development in the area of cooperative learning. Several participants responded that they know they need to learn more and want to have a better understanding of how the different cooperative learning strategies work. The majority of the participants would also like to attend a workshop to learn about the different cooperative learning strategies. The results also demonstrated that educators believe cooperative learning is effective for students with and without disabilities. Forty-four of the 51 or 86% of the responses indicated that cooperative learning is either somewhat effective or very effective for students without disabilities. This demonstrates that educators have confidence in these strategies for students without disabilities. The results also show that 41 out of 51 or 80% of the participants believe cooperative learning is somewhat effective or very effective for students with disabilities. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of cooperative learning, but there is still the concern of the participants not fully understanding what cooperative learning is and how to implement the different strategies. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cooperative learning for students with disabilities. The researcher believes that cooperative learning strategies can have a positive effect on student achievement, but educators need to fully understand the strategies and how to properly implement them. Many of the participants (80%) support the idea that cooperative learning is effective for students with disabilities. Some participants cited social skill development and self-esteem building as reasons why they think cooperative learning can be effective for students with disabilities. The results from this study also indicate participants (86%) believe cooperative learning is effective for students without disabilities as well. The researcher believes this is important and demonstrates why educators need to understand cooperative learning and how to implement the different strategies. The results did not show the effectiveness of the jigsaw method specifically, as only 17 out of 44 participants were able to define the jigsaw method. The researcher believes this indicates that the jigsaw cannot be effective if educators are not even sure what it is or how to implement it correctly. The literature supports the idea that the jigsaw method is more effective for older students, but this study does not support that by the fact that the majority of respondents in this study did not know what or how to implement the jigsaw method. The research does show and support the study by Santos Rego and Del Mar Lorenzo Moledo (2005) that the jigsaw can create a higher self-esteem and self-efficacy for students with disabilities. Several participants stated that cooperative learning helps students develop social skills and build self-esteem. The researcher believes this is important and supports the effectiveness of cooperative learning for students with disabilities. Implications for Practice The implications for this study show that there is a need for educators to gain a better understanding of cooperative learning and the variety of strategies that it entails. Professional development would benefit educators in the area of cooperative learning. The best form would be a workshop to provide them with an interactive approach that allows them to learn the strategies firsthand. Recommendations Further research of a larger sample might provide a better insight into the need for professional development. This could result in more generalization for teachers nationally to receive professional development on cooperative learning. Due to the small sample, this study is only able to determine the needs of one high school. Conclusion In conclusion, this study provides evidence that educators knowledge of cooperative learning is adequate, but there is a need for professional development on specific strategies. Educators realize cooperative learning can have a positive impact on students with and without disabilities, but they are not confident in implementing a variety of strategies. It would be to the benefit of the students for educators to attend a professional development workshop on different cooperative learning strategies.