Nevada State Senatorial Race - Research Paper Example The challenge for the Nevada State Senate depended on a solitary seat. The challeng...
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
HOW THE DISPLAY SPACE OF A FOOD PRODUCT AFFECTS Essays HOW THE DISPLAY SPACE OF A FOOD PRODUCT AFFECTS Essay HOW THE DISPLAY SPACE OF A FOOD PRODUCT AFFECTS Essay RESEARCH PROPOSAL FORMName:RICHARD BRYERNerve pathway:ACCESS TO NursingProposed Undertaking Subject:DISPLAY SPACE FOR PRODUCTSProposed Undertaking Thesis:HOW THE DISPLAY SPACE OF A FOOD PRODUCT AFFECTS ITS SALESCoach:Dr Hazel Mitford Area of involvement and possible attackI can non read the authorship that is in this box on the sheet that was sent to me as portion of further information to follow Reason for pickI can non read the authorship that is in this box on the sheet that was sent to me as portion of further information to follow Anticipated jobs / disadvantagesIn any nutrient shop there are 1,000s of merchandises. Clearly given the restraint on clip to finish the undertaking, the primary research procedure will merely be to cover with 3 merchandises. Besides the figure of clients that will be asked to take portion in the study will be restricted to 150. Tutor Remark: HOW THE DISPLAY SPACE OF A FOOD PRODUCT AFFECTS ITS SALESRICHARD BRYERFRIDAY 12ThursdayMAY 2006Nursing Nerve pathwayAbstractionGrocery retailing is dominated by four major operators, which are invariably engaged in selling, advertisement and gross revenues publicity activities to increase gross revenues and hike profitableness. A major restraint on the gross revenues of any nutrient point is the sum of show infinite that is allocated to it. This undertaking investigates the relationship between show infinite and gross revenues. It begins by researching the factors which have an influence on people on make up ones minding where they are traveling to purchase their nutrient. The undertaking draws decisions from the secondary and primary informations that has been collected and makes recommendations on how grocery retail merchants can maximize the gross revenues and net income potency of the show infinite in their shops.RecognitionsI would wish to thank my coach and the directors and st aff of my local Asda shop for assisting me to construction this undertaking and garner the primary informations that was necessary to ease the declared aim of the research.Contentss1. INTRODUCTIONPage 42. SECONDARY RESEARCH Ã¢â¬â WHAT DO PEOLE WANT FROM THEIR GROCERY STORE? Page 53. PRIMARY RESEARCH Ã¢â¬â DOES INCREASING THE AMOUNT OF DISPLAY SPACE INCREASE SALES OF GROCERY ITEMS? Page 94. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMEDNSATIONSPage 13REFERENCESPage 151.IntroductionIn nutrient retailing the major restraint on how much gross revenues and net income any given shop can bring forth is the sum of show infinite that is available. Food retailing is really competitory on monetary value footings and the gross net income borders that are available on most grocery points is really little compared to other signifiers of retailing ( i.e. furniture, electrical, apparels etc ) . Therefore, in order to do optimal usage of the available show, nutrient retail merchants must offer a scope of merchandis es and services that satisfies the demands of its clients, and which maximises the gross revenues and net income potency of each shop. The Objective Of The Undertaking The aim of this undertaking is to find whether there is a causal relationship between the hebdomadal gross revenues degree of a food market point and the sum of show infinite that is allocated to it.For illustration, if there were 5 facings of point X and 1,000 units were sold each, would the gross revenues of Ten addition to 1,200, if the figure of facings were increased to 6? However, with each food market point, there will be an upper bound to the maximal figure that can be sold within one hebdomad. Therefore, merely increasing the figure of facings for X will at some point generate diminishing returns.For illustration, the maximal hebdomadal gross revenues for Ten could be 1,400. Therefore, increasing the figure of facings of X to 10 would non bring forth gross revenues of 2,000 units. The other of import factor of class, is that if you increase the figure of facings for X, so you must by default cut down the show for some other grocery point.Besides it needs to be recognised tha t at that place many grounds ( e.g. convenient location, opening times, quality of client service etc ) why people decide to shop at a peculiar shop. Obviously if possible clients are non enticed into your shop in the first topographic point, so it does non count of how facings of point X are on show, as these people will be shopping elsewhere. The Structure and Content of the Undertaking It is of import to set up a robust research model, within which to carry on the probe, analyse the findings, draw decisions and do recommendations on how retail merchants should continue in the hereafter. Therefore, the undertaking is structured as follows: Secondary research Ã¢â¬â What do people want from their food market shop? Primary research Ã¢â¬â Does increasing the sum of show infinite addition gross revenues of food market points? Decisions Recommendations for future action SECONDARY RESEARCH Ã¢â¬â WHAT DO PEOPLE WANT FROM THEIR GROCERY STORE? What is Secondary Data? Secondary informations beginnings can come from within the administration, internal secondary informations, or from outside the administration i.e. external secondary informations. Secondary information may besides be called thebyproductstatistics, for illustration, the aggregation of the figure of unemployed is a byproduct of paying out benefits and entering the sum. There are many beginnings of secondary informations e.g.Monthly Digest of Statistics, Regional Trendsetc.There are two advantages of utilizing these informations beginnings: One, they provide the chance to develop our apprehension and cognition of the hypothesis we are look intoing. Two, frequently they are easy to entree and are cheaper to get so the aggregation of primary informations. Facilitating The Requirements Of This Undertaking To ease the demands of this undertaking Ã¢â¬â the undermentioned web site ( www.igd.com ) was accessed. The intent ofImmunoglobulin dis to animate people through cognition and leading. It is a cardinal research administration for the nutrient and food market industry. It provides a assortment of services Ã¢â¬â notably, which suited the demands of this undertaking, free fact sheets. When carry oning an probe, it is necessary to get down by garnering relevant background information.With respect to this undertaking, we need to understand what factors influence people when make up ones minding upon where they are traveling to purchase their food markets.Immunoglobulin dhold compiled a fact sheet, entitledValue versus Price Ã¢â¬âwhich, examines the issues involved. As stated earlier, the value a retail merchant offers is judged on more than merely monetary value. For illustration, convenience, client service, shop environment, freshness, safety, pick, easiness of usage and handi ness are recognised as adding value to the shopping experience and the merchandises shoppers buy.The graph below shows that the most of import three things shoppers want from retail merchants are: high quality merchandises ; lowest monetary value ; and high criterion of client service.Factors Affecting CustomersÃ¢â¬â¢ Choice Of Food Outlet1 Ã¢â¬â High quality merchandises2 Ã¢â¬â Lowest monetary value3 Ã¢â¬â High criterion of client service4 Ã¢â¬â Lots of pick5 Ã¢â¬â Buy one Ã¢â¬â acquire one free6 Ã¢â¬â Nice shopping environment7 Ã¢â¬â Brands I know8 Ã¢â¬â Good auto parking installations9 Ã¢â¬â Guarantee that what I want will ever be available10 Ã¢â¬â Long gap hours11 Ã¢â¬â Extra services12 Ã¢â¬â Lots of invention13 Ã¢â¬â None of theseBeginning: IGD Consumer Research 2004The above information Tells us that there are 12 factors that have an influence on the retail mercantile establishment, nutrient shoppers decide to utilize. Factors 2 ( Lo west monetary value ) and 5 ( Buy one Ã¢â¬â acquire one free ) are concerned with monetary value. This means that monetary value has a major influence on pick of retail mercantile establishment. However, monetary value must be weighted within all of the other factors. That is, whilst low monetary values remain a top precedence, it does non needfully intend that consumers will continuously trade food market retail merchants in chase of the cheapest monetary values available.It is likely for the huge bulk of consumers that the weighting of the other 10 factors will be more of import than a little per centum addition in monetary values across a scope of goods. It is merely when the monetary value derived function between their current preferred retail merchant and a major rival becomes perceptibly bigger across a scope of points that an bing client will see exchanging to the challenger. Further research byImmunoglobulin dhas revealed that in recent old ages, monetary value has emerg ed as a cardinal competitory border for UK food market retail merchants.However, when inventing pricing schemes, food market retail merchants can non afford to disregard the weighting of the other 10 factors. Therefore two common pricing schemes have emerged Ã¢â¬â EDLP ( Every Day Low Pricing ) and Hi-Lo ( High background Ã¢â¬â low publicity ) . The research has shown that few retail merchants operate a individual pure pricing scheme, with most uniting EDLP and Hi-Lo to organize a intercrossed placement although by and large be givening towards one type.ShoppersÃ¢â¬â¢ PreferenceWhilst there was a general credence amongst shoppers that low monetary values and publicities offer nest eggs on their shopping, there was assorted sentiments amongst shoppers as to which was considered to offer them the greatest benefit. EDLP Promotions Beginning: IGD Consumer Research 2003These penchants can be farther divided, as shown below.Reasons for Preference of Low Prices or Promotions60 % Low Monetary values34 % Low monetary values and limited or no publicity because they shop to a budget15 % Low monetary values and limited or no publicity because publicities are non for people like me and / or I do non hold the infinite11 % Low monetary values and limited or no publicity because I think supermarkets with tonss of publicities charge more for other points40 % Promotions23 % Lots of different publicities because I like to stock up9 % Lots of different publicities because I think I save more money than I would with low monetary values8 % Lots of different publicities because it gives me a opportunity to seek new merchandisesBeginning: IGD Consumer Research 2003 Drumhead The findings from the secondary research may be summarised as follows: 12 factors influence customersÃ¢â¬â¢ pick of nutrient mercantile establishment High quality merchandises, lowest monetary value and high criterion of client service are the most of import factors act uponing customersÃ¢â¬â¢ pick of nutrient mercantile establishment Customers do non seek to wholly fulfill a individual factor in their pick of nutrient mercantile establishment Ã¢â¬â instead they will use a weighting to each of the factors This implies that trade name trueness is of import Ã¢â¬â i.e. a client will merely exchange to a rival when their current preferred retail merchant no longer satisfies their overall weighting of the factors Monetary value has become much more of import as a competitory factor in recent old ages Ã¢â¬â 2 cardinal pricing schemes have emerged Ã¢â¬â EDLP and Hi-Lo Retailers have tended to develop intercrossed pricing schemes to fulfill their selling and gross revenues aims and to keep their fight within the market Preferences among consumers for low monetary values or publicities can each be divided into 3 sub-categories PRIMARY RESEARCH Ã¢â¬â DOES INCREASING THE AMOUNT OF DISPLAY SPACE INCREASE SALES OF GROCERY ITEMS? What is Primary Data? Primary informations is the aggregation of information which is non available from secondary informations beginnings. There a figure of ways in which primary informations can be collected Ã¢â¬â personal interviews, telephone interviews, postal questionnaires, online questionnaires etc. Secondary informations beginnings should ever be consulted before transporting out primary research. This is because secondary beginnings can foreground the key factors which need to be considered when planing primary informations aggregation methods.As stated earlier, when carry oning an probe, background / secondary informations, informs the research procedure. The subdivision 2 drumhead high spots the importance of monetary value in finding customersÃ¢â¬â¢ pick of nutrient mercantile establishment. Therefore, it can be concluded that it is non merely the figure of facings that is dedicated to a peculiar food market point that affects its gross revenues. The monetary value of an point besides ha s a major impact on its demand. Charging lower monetary values will intend higher gross revenues but proportionally less net income.There are valid commercial grounds for well take downing monetary values and increasing gross revenues. Notably to accomplish an addition in market portion or to set up a bridgehead in a new market. However, to be sustainable in the longer term, lower monetary values must bring forth higher net incomes, through a significant addition in volume gross revenues. This can be achieved by a uniting the undermentioned factors Ã¢â¬â reduced monetary values, increased show infinite and extremely effectual selling. The Questionnaire To carry through the demands of the undertaking, the undermentioned questionnaire was complied.Question 1Which class best describes you?1. Low Monetary values1.1 Low monetary values and limited or no publicity because they shop to a budget1.2 Low monetary values and limited or no publicity because publicities are non for people like me and / or I do non hold the infinite1.3 Low monetary values and limited or no publicity because I think supermarkets with tonss of publicities charge more for other points2. Promotions2.1 Tonss of different publicities because I like to stock up2.2 Tonss of different publicities because I think I save more money than I would with low monetary values2.3 Tonss of different publicities because it gives me a opportunity to seek new merchandisesQuestion 2For each of the undermentioned merchandises, would you purchase more of the point if the figure of facings was addition from 4 to 8 and the monetary value remained the same?Galaxy Chocolate 150gYes / N oPek Chop Pork 170gYes / NoApple and Blackcurrant JuiceYes / NoQuestion 3For each of the undermentioned merchandises, would you purchase more of the point if the figure of facings remained at 4 but the monetary value was reduced by 20 % ?Galaxy Chocolate 150gYes / NoPek Chop Pork 170gYes / NoApple and Blackcurrant JuiceYes / NoQuestion 4For each of the undermentioned merchandises, would you purchase more of the point if the figure of facings increased from 4 to 8, the monetary value was reduced by 20 % , and extra promotional stuff was used to foreground the show?Galaxy Chocolate 150gYes / NoPek Chop Pork 170gYes / NoApple and Blackcurrant JuiceYes / No The Design and Purpose Of The Questionnaire The design of the questionnaire is linked to the findings in subdivision 2. The first inquiry trades with the classification of each respondent. The principle being that those respondents who place themselves in any of the undermentioned classs i.e. 2.1 to 2.3 Ã¢â¬â should be more tempted by promotional trades than any respondents in classs 1.1 to 1.3. The respondents are so presented with three different scenarios for three food market points to find whether they would increase their hebdomadal ingestion.The consequences of this questionnaire will assist the shop direction to do more informed determinations about the sum of show infinite to apportion to specific food market points. It will besides let them to measure the effectivity of in-store promotional runs in footings of increasing gross revenues and profitableness. Sampling Techniques In order to do effectual concern determinations sing their merchandises, services, monetary values etc, nutrient retail merchants need to roll up informations about consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ penchants, future purposes etc. Designation of the relevantpopulationis indispensable since informations aggregation is a dearly-won exercising. Since everyone in the UK needs to travel nutrient shopping the relevantpopulationcould be 40 million. If a nutrient retail merchant was merely concerned if the people who presently buy its merchandise and services, the relevantpopulationmight be 3 million. In either state of affairs, it is evidently impossible to include everyone in a study.When the relevant identified population is excessively big for a cost-efficient nose count to be conducted asampleof that population must be selected, and single responses generalised to stand for the facts about, or the positions, penchants etc of, the full population. Sampling processs can be divided into two wide classs Ã¢ â¬â those where persons are selected by some anteriorrandom methodprior to the aggregation phase, and those where the persons arenon-randomlyselected at the aggregation phase.To guarantee that the sample is representative of the population the most usual non-random sampling is the choice of aquota sample.In this instance assorted features of the population are noted, for illustration, the divisions on sex, age, income etc, and the sample aims to include similar proportions of people with these features. The study conducted byImmunoglobulin dwhich showed that 60 % of shoppers preferred low monetary values and 40 % , is an illustration of aquota sampleand can be considered to be representative of thepopulationi.e. UK nutrient shoppers. 3.5 The Results Of The Questionnaire Q1 No of respondents % of respondents Q2 No of respondents % of respondents 1.1 29 28 % a. Yes 11 11 % 1.2 13 13 % a. No 93 89 % 1.3 11 11 % B. Yes 2 2 % 2.1 23 22 % B. No 102 98 % 2.2 15 14 % c. Yes 3 3 % 2.3 13 13 % c. No 101 97 % Entire 104 100 % Q3 No of respondents % of respondents Q4 No of respondents % of respondents a. Yes 13 13 % a. Yes 30 29 % a. No 91 88 % a. No 74 71 % B. Yes 4 4 % B. Yes 18 17 % B. No 100 96 % B. No 96 92 % c. Yes 4 4 % c. Yes 13 13 % c. No 100 96 % c. No 91 88 % Due to clip restraints, random sampling was used to roll up the questionnaire consequences. Out of 143 people that were asked, 104 agreed to take portion in the study. The study consequences can non be considered to be representative of the population i.e. UK nutrient shoppers. In order to accomplish a representative sample Ã¢â¬â quota trying would hold been used. However, such an attack was merely excessively clip devouring for this undertaking.The farther restriction of the study is that the consequences to oppugn 1 bash non match to proportions of people in theImmunoglobulin dstudy that prefer low monetary values or publicities. The replies collected for inquiries for 2 to 4, have non been subdivided in conformity with the classification of shoppers in inquiry 1. It would hold been possible to accomplish this classification nevertheless, clip and resource restraints have limited the processing of the consequences.What Do The Results Tell Us?The consequences for the first food market point in the study, i.e. Galaxy cocoa, are much more positive than for the other two merchandises. For these points increasing the figure of facings and cut downing the monetary value do non actuate shoppers to purchase more of these merchandises. It is merely when the figure of facings are increased ; the monetary values are reduced and extra promotional is used, that there is any type of positive displacement by consumers to purchase more of these points.1 = Yes2 = NoAs the chart shows, for Galaxy Chocolate the response to inquiries 2 Ã¢â¬â 4 is much more positive than for the other two points. Increasing the figure of facings and cut downing the monetary value has a much more important impact on shoppersÃ¢â¬â¢ purchasing purposes, than for the other two points. When these two factors are combined with increased promotional stuff, 30 % of the respondents said that they would increase their hebdomadal purchase of this point as a consequence of this package . CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 4.1Decisions The information generated by the secondary and primary research indicates that there is a direct relationship between the sum of show infinite allocated to a nutrient merchandise and its degree of gross revenues. However, there is merely a important motion in shoppersÃ¢â¬â¢ purposes to purchase more of a nutrient point, when extra factors are added ( i.e. the monetary value is reduced by a significant sum and in-store promotional activity is increased ) . Then it merely works for certain nutrient points. UK consumers have grown in edification and are influenced by 12 factors, when it comes to choosing a nutrient retail merchant. Lower monetary values have become more of import but in themselves will non promote big Numberss of consumers to for good exchange nutrient retail merchants. 4.2RecommendationsAs stated in the debut, the major restraint on nutrient retail merchants is the sum of show infinite that can be allocated to each point in the scope of merchandises they offer to their clients. To maximize the gross revenues and net income potency of their show a nutrient retail merchant must see all of the factors listed below:Traffic flow: In order to get down doing alterations to the merchandise arrangement in a shop, retail merchants need to map out an overall program. To make this, retail merchants need to recognize the current traffic flow of the shop and develop a program to direct traffic flow so that clients will shop the full shop and with their attending focused where the retail merchant would wish it to be. By strategically puting demand / finish merchandises and impulse points throughout the inside of the shop, it is possible to equilibrate the traffic flow and increase the overall gross revenues by doing best usage of every square pes. Fixturing: This is the furniture that holds and displays the bulk of a storeÃ¢â¬â¢s ware. The most successful fixture systems are installed to be flexible and offer retail merchants the chance to do major show reconfigurations with small or no investing. Retailers need to utilize the flexibleness of these fixtures on a frequent footing to add involvement and exhilaration to the shop. Artworks and Signage: These points communicate a storeÃ¢â¬â¢s image. They can be used to educate clients about ware for sale, denote particular publicities or to direct traffic flow through the shop. Artworks and signage should show a unvarying degree of quality. Similar Product Selling Trading similar merchandises together can make a dramatic impact and educate the client to the deepness of merchandise a retail merchant is transporting within a given class. Cross-Mix Selling This involves exposing a assortment of apparently unrelated merchandises to make a comprehensive ocular narrative. This type of trading communicates breadth of merchandise and educates the client about ware they may be incognizant that the retail merchant is transporting. Planogram The arrangement of selling that is geting to the shop can be planned out on paper by utilizing a planogram. A planogram is a retailerÃ¢â¬â¢s design which visually communicates how ware and props fit onto a shop fixture. MentionsFact Sheet Ã¢â¬â Every Day Low Pricing versus Promotions Ã¢â¬âIGD, 10/09/2004 (www.igd.com/CIR.asp)Fact Sheet Ã¢â¬â Value versus PriceÃ¢â¬â IGD, 10/09/2004 (www.igd.com/CIR.asp)Display and Merchandising Guide Ã¢â¬â (www.glmshows.com/press/DisplayHandbook)Retail Vision Ã¢â¬â Retail Management Consultants (www.retail-vision.co.uk)Quantitative Methods for Business Decisions Ã¢â¬âJon Curwin and Roger Slater Ã¢â¬â 1991 ( Chapman A ; Hall )Page 1 of 15
Friday, November 22, 2019
President John F. Kennedy Gives Man on the Moon Speech President John F. Kennedy delivered this speech, Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs, on May 25, 1961 before a joint session of Congress. In this speech, JFK stated that the United States should set as a goal the landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth by the end of the decade. Acknowledging that the Soviets had a head start in their space program, Kennedy urged the U.S. to work diligently to lead the achievements of space travel because in many ways [it] may hold the key to our future on earth. Full Text of the Man on the Moon Speech Given By President John F. Kennedy Mr. Speaker, Mr. Vice President, my copartners in Government, gentlemen-and ladies: The Constitution imposes upon me the obligation to from time to time give to the Congress information of the State of the Union. While this has traditionally been interpreted as an annual affair, this tradition has been broken in extraordinary times. These are extraordinary times. And we face an extraordinary challenge. Our strength as well as our convictions have imposed upon this nation the role of leader in freedoms cause. No role in history could be more difficult or more important. We stand for freedom. That is our conviction for ourselvesthat is our only commitment to others. No friend, no neutral and no adversary should think otherwise. We are not against any manor any nationor any systemexcept as it is hostile to freedom. Nor am I here to present a new military doctrine, bearing any one name or aimed at any one area. I am here to promote the freedom doctrine. I. THE GLOBAL STAGE The great battleground for the defense and expansion of freedom today is the whole southern half of the globeAsia, Latin America, Africa and the Middle Eastthe lands of the rising peoples. Their revolution is the greatest in human history. They seek an end to injustice, tyranny, and exploitation. More than an end, they seek a beginning. And theirs is a revolution which we would support regardless of the Cold War, and regardless of which political or economic route they should choose to freedom. For the adversaries of freedom did not create the revolution; nor did they create the conditions which compel it. But they are seeking to ride the crest of its waveto capture it for themselves. Yet their aggression is more often concealed than open. They have fired no missiles; and their troops are seldom seen. They send arms, agitators, aid, technicians and propaganda to every troubled area. But where fighting is required, it is usually done by othersby guerrillas striking at night, by assassins striking aloneassassins who have taken the lives of four thousand civil officers in the last twelve months in Vietnam aloneby subversives and saboteurs and insurrectionists, who in some cases control whole areas inside of independent nations. [At this point the following paragraph, which appears in the text as signed and transmitted to the Senate and House of Representatives, was omitted in the reading of the message: They possess a powerful intercontinental striking force, large forces for conventional war, a well-trained underground in nearly every country, the power to conscript talent and manpower for any purpose, the capacity for quick decisions, a closed society without dissent or free information, and long experience in the techniques of violence and subversion. They make the most of their scientific successes, their economic progress and their pose as a foe of colonialism and friend of popular revolution. They prey on unstable or unpopular governments, unsealed, or unknown boundaries, unfilled hopes, convulsive change, massive poverty, illiteracy, unrest and frustration.] With these formidable weapons, the adversaries of freedom plan to consolidate their territoryto exploit, to control, and finally to destroy the hopes of the worlds newest nations; and they have ambition to do it before the end of this decade. It is a contest of will and purpose as well as force and violencea battle for minds and souls as well as lives and territory. And in that contest, we cannot stand aside. We stand, as we have always stood from our earliest beginnings, for the independence and equality of all nations. This nation was born of revolution and raised in freedom. And we do not intend to leave an open road for despotism. There is no single simple policy which meets this challenge. Experience has taught us that no one nation has the power or the wisdom to solve all the problems of the world or manage its revolutionary tidesthat extending our commitments does not always increase our securitythat any initiative carries with it the risk of a temporary defeatthat nuclear weapons cannot prevent subversionthat no free people can be kept free without will and energy of their ownand that no two nations or situations are exactly alike. Yet there is much we can doand must do. The proposals I bring before you are numerous and varied. They arise from the host of special opportunities and dangers which have become increasingly clear in recent months. Taken together, I believe that they can mark another step forward in our effort as a people. I am here to ask the help of this Congress and the nation in approving these necessary measures. II. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PROGRESS AT HOME The first and basic task confronting this nation this year was to turn recession into recovery. An affirmative anti-recession program, initiated with your cooperation, supported the natural forces in the private sector; and our economy is now enjoying renewed confidence and energy. The recession has been halted. Recovery is under way. But the task of abating unemployment and achieving a full use of our resources does remain a serious challenge for us all. Large-scale unemployment during a recession is bad enough, but large-scale unemployment during a period of prosperity would be intolerable. I am therefore transmitting to the Congress a new Manpower Development and Training program, to train or retrain several hundred thousand workers, particularly in those areas where we have seen chronic unemployment as a result of technological factors in new occupational skills over a four-year period, in order to replace those skills made obsolete by automation and industrial change with the new skills which the new processes demand. It should be a satisfaction to us all that we have made great strides in restoring world confidence in the dollar, halting the outflow of gold and improving our balance of payments. During the last two months, our gold stocks actually increased by seventeen million dollars, compared to a loss of 635 million dollars during the last two months of 1960. We must maintain this progressand this will require the cooperation and restraint of everyone. As recovery progresses, there will be temptations to seek unjustified price and wage increases. These we cannot afford. They will only handicap our efforts to compete abroad and to achieve full recovery here at home. Labor and management mustand I am confident that they willpursue responsible wage and price policies in these critical times. I look to the Presidents Advisory Committee onÃ Labor ManagementÃ Policy to give a strong lead in this direction. Moreover, if theÃ budget deficitÃ now increased by the needs of our security is to be held within manageable proportions, it will be necessary to hold tightly to prudent fiscal standards; and I request the cooperation of the Congress in this regardto refrain from adding funds or programs, desirable as they may be, to the Budgetto end the postal deficit, as my predecessor also recommended, through increased ratesa deficit incidentally, this year, which exceeds the fiscal 1962 cost of all the space and defense measures that I am submitting todayto provide full pay-as-you-go highway financingand to close those tax loopholes earlier specified. Our security and progress cannot be cheaply purchased; and their price must be found in what we all forego as well as what we all must pay. III. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PROGRESS ABROAD I stress the strength of our economy because it is essential to the strength of our nation. And what is true in our case is true in the case of other countries. Their strength in the struggle for freedom depends on the strength of their economic and their social progress. We would be badly mistaken to consider their problems in military terms alone. For no amount of arms and armies can help stabilize those governments which are unable or unwilling to achieve social and economic reform and development. Military pacts cannot help nations whose social injustice and economic chaos invite insurgency and penetration and subversion. The most skillful counter-guerrilla efforts cannot succeed where the local population is too caught up in its own misery to be concerned about the advance of communism. But for those who share this view, we stand ready now, as we have in the past, to provide generously of our skills, and our capital, and our food to assist the peoples of the less-developed nations to reach their goals in freedomto help them before they are engulfed in crisis. This is also our great opportunity in 1961. If we grasp it, then subversion to prevent its success is exposed as an unjustifiable attempt to keep these nations from either being free or equal. But if we do not pursue it, and if they do not pursue it, the bankruptcy of unstable governments, one by one, and of unfilled hopes will surely lead to a series of totalitarian receiverships. Earlier in the year, I outlined to the Congress a new program for aiding emerging nations; and it is my intention to transmit shortly draft legislation to implement this program, to establish a new Act for International Development, and to add to the figures previously requested, in view of the swift pace of critical events, an additional 250 million dollars for a Presidential Contingency Fund, to be used only upon a Presidential determination in each case, with regular and complete reports to the Congress in each case, when there is a sudden and extraordinary drain upon our regular funds which we cannot foreseeas illustrated by recent events in Southeast Asiaand it makes necessary the use of this emergency reserve. The total amount requestednow raised to 2.65 billion dollarsis both minimal and crucial. I do not see how anyone who is concernedas we all areabout the growing threats to freedom around the globeand who is asking what more we can do as a peoplecan weaken or oppose the sin gle most important program available for building the frontiers of freedom. IV. TOOLS FOR A GLOBAL STRUGGLE All that I have said makes it clear that we are engaged in a world-wide struggle in which we bear a heavy burden to preserve and promote the ideals that we share with all mankind, or have alien ideals forced upon them. That struggle has highlighted the role of our Information Agency. It is essential that the funds previously requested for this effort be not only approved in full but increased by 2 million, 400 thousand dollars, to a total of 121 million dollars. This new request is for additional radio and television to Latin America and Southeast Asia. These tools are particularly effective and essential in the cities and villages of those great continents as a means of reaching millions of uncertain peoples to tell them of our interest in their fight for freedom. In Latin America, we are proposing to increase our Spanish and Portuguese broadcasts to a total of 154 hours a week, compared to 42 hours today, none of which is in Portuguese, the language of about one-third of the people of South America. The Soviets, Red Chinese and satellites already broadcast into Latin America more than 134 hours a week in Spanish and Portuguese. Communist China alone does more public information broadcasting in our own hemisphere than we do. Moreover, powerful propaganda broadcasts from Havana now are heard throughout Latin America, encouraging new revolutions in several countries. Similarly, in Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand, we must communicate our determination and support to those upon whom our hopes for resisting the communist tide in that continent ultimately depend. Our interest is in the truth. V. OUR PARTNERSHIP FOR SELF-DEFENSE But while we talk of sharing and building and the competition of ideas, others talk of arms and threaten war. So we have learned to keep our defenses strongand to cooperate with others in a partnership of self-defense. The events of recent weeks have caused us to look anew at these efforts. The center of freedoms defense is our network of world alliances, extending from NATO, recommended by aÃ Democratic PresidentÃ and approved by a Republican Congress, to SEATO, recommended by aÃ Republican PresidentÃ and approved by a Democratic Congress. These alliances were constructed in the 1940s and 1950sit is our task and responsibility in the 1960s to strengthen them. To meet the changing conditions of powerand power relationships have changedwe have endorsed an increased emphasis on NATOs conventional strength. At the same time we are affirming our conviction that the NATO nuclear deterrent must also be kept strong. I have made clear our intention to commit to the NATO command, for this purpose, the 5 Polaris submarines originally suggested byÃ President Eisenhower, with the possibility, if needed, of more to come. Second, a major part of our partnership for self-defense is the Military Assistance Program. The main burden of local defense against local attack, subversion, insurrection or guerrilla warfare must of necessity rest with local forces. Where these forces have the necessary will and capacity to cope with such threats, our intervention is rarely necessary or helpful. Where the will is present and only capacity is lacking, our Military Assistance Program can be of help. But this program, like economic assistance, needs a new emphasis. It cannot be extended without regard to the social, political and military reforms essential to internal respect and stability. The equipment and training provided must be tailored to legitimate local needs and to our own foreign and military policies, not to our supply of military stocks or a local leaders desire for military display. And military assistance can, in addition to its military purposes, make a contribution to economic progress, as do our own Army Engineers. In an earlier message, I requested 1.6 billion dollars for Military Assistance, stating that this would maintain existing force levels, but that I could not foresee how much more might be required. It is now clear that this is not enough. The present crisis in Southeast Asia, on which theÃ Vice PresidentÃ has made a valuable reportthe rising threat of communism inÃ Latin Americathe increased arms traffic in Africaand all the new pressures on every nation found on the map by tracing your fingers along the borders of the Communist bloc in Asia and the Middle Eastall make clear the dimension of our needs. I therefore request the Congress to provide a total of 1.885 billion dollars for Military Assistance in the coming fiscal yearan amount less than that requested a year agobut a minimum which must be assured if we are to help those nations make secure their independence. This must be prudently and wisely spentand that will be our common endeavor. Military and economic assistance has been a heavy burden on our citizens for a long time, and I recognize the strong pressures against it; but this battle is far from over, it is reaching a crucial stage, and I believe we should participate in it. We cannot merely state our opposition to totalitarian advance without paying the price of helping those now under the greatest pressure. VI. OUR OWN MILITARY AND INTELLIGENCE SHIELD In line with these developments, I have directed a further reinforcement of our own capacity to deter or resist non-nuclear aggression. In the conventional field, with one exception, I find no present need for large new levies of men. What is needed is rather a change of position to give us still further increases in flexibility. Therefore, I am directing the Secretary of Defense to undertake a reorganization and modernization of the Armys divisional structure, to increase its non-nuclear firepower, to improve its tactical mobility in any environment, to insure its flexibility to meet any direct or indirect threat, to facilitate its coordination with our major allies, and to provide more modern mechanized divisions in Europe and bring their equipment up to date, and new airborne brigades in both the Pacific and Europe. And secondly, I am asking the Congress for an additional 100 million dollars to begin the procurement task necessary to re-equip this new Army structure with the most modern material. New helicopters, new armored personnel carriers, and new howitzers, for example, must be obtained now. Third, I am directing the Secretary of Defense to expand rapidly and substantially, in cooperation with our Allies, the orientation of existing forces for the conduct of non-nuclear war, paramilitary operations and sub-limited or unconventional wars. In addition our special forces and unconventional warfare units will be increased and reoriented. Throughout the services new emphasis must be placed on the special skills and languages which are required to work with local populations. Fourth, the Army is developing plans to make possible a much more rapid deployment of a major portion of its highly trained reserve forces. When these plans are completed and the reserve is strengthened, two combat-equipped divisions, plus their supporting forces, a total of 89,000 men, could be ready in an emergency for operations with but 3 weeks notice2 more divisions with but 5 weeks noticeand six additional divisions and their supporting forces, making a total of 10 divisions, could be deployable with less than 8 weeks notice. In short, these new plans will allow us to almost double the combat power of the Army in less than two months, compared to the nearly nine months heretofore required. Fifth, to enhance the already formidable ability of the Marine Corps to respond to limited war emergencies, I am asking the Congress for 60 million dollars to increase the Marine Corps strength to 190,000 men. This will increase the initial impact and staying power of our three Marine divisions and three air wings, and provide a trained nucleus for further expansion, if necessary for self-defense. Finally, to cite one other area of activities that are both legitimate and necessary as a means of self-defense in an age of hidden perils, our whole intelligence effort must be reviewed, and its coordination with other elements of policy assured. The Congress and the American people are entitled to know that we will institute whatever new organization, policies, and control are necessary. VII. CIVIL DEFENSE One major element of theÃ national security programÃ which this nation has never squarely faced up to is civil defense. This problem arises not from present trends but from national inaction in which most of us have participated. In the past decade we have intermittently considered a variety of programs, but we have never adopted a consistent policy. Public considerations have been largely characterized by apathy, indifference and skepticism; while, at the same time, many of the civil defense plans have been so far-reaching and unrealistic that they have not gained essential support. This Administration has been looking hard at exactly what civil defense can and cannot do. It cannot be obtained cheaply. It cannot give an assurance of blast protection that will be proof against surprise attack or guaranteed against obsolescence or destruction. And it cannot deter a nuclear attack. We will deter an enemy from making a nuclear attack only if our retaliatory power is so strong and so invulnerable that he knows he would be destroyed by our response. If we have that strength, civil defense is not needed to deter an attack. If we should ever lack it, civil defense would not be an adequate substitute. But this deterrent concept assumes rational calculations by rational men. And the history of this planet, and particularly the history of the 20th century, is sufficient to remind us of the possibilities of an irrational attack, a miscalculation, an accidental war, [or a war of escalation in which the stakes by each side gradually increase to the point of maximum danger] which cannot be either foreseen or deterred. It is on this basis that civil defense can be readily justifiableas insurance for the civilian population in case of an enemy miscalculation. It is insurance we trust will never be neededbut insurance which we could never forgive ourselves for foregoing in the event of catastrophe. Once the validity of this concept is recognized, there is no point in delaying the initiation of a nation-wide long-range program of identifying present fallout shelter capacity and providing shelter in new and existing structures. Such a program would protect millions of people against the hazards of radioactive fallout in the event of large-scale nuclear attack. Effective performance of the entire program not only requires new legislative authority and more funds but also sound organizational arrangements. Therefore, under the authority vested in me by Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958, I am assigning responsibility for this program to the top civilian authority already responsible for continental defense, the Secretary of Defense. It is important that this function remain civilian, in nature and leadership; and this feature will not be changed. The Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization will be reconstituted as a small staff agency to assist in the coordination of these functions. To more accurately describe its role, its title should be changed to the Office of Emergency Planning. As soon as those newly charged with these responsibilities have prepared new authorization and appropriation requests, such requests will be transmitted to the Congress for a much-strengthened Federal-State civil defense program. Such a program will provide Federal funds for identifying fallout shelter capacity in existing, structures, and it will include, where appropriate, incorporation of shelter in Federal buildings, new requirements for shelter in buildings constructed withÃ Federal assistance, and matching grants and other incentives for constructing shelter in State and local and private buildings. Federal appropriations for civil defense in fiscal 1962 under this program will in all likelihood be more than triple the pending budget requests; and they will increase sharply in subsequent years. Financial participation will also be required from State and local governments and from private citizens. But no insurance is cost-free; and every American citizen and his community must decide for themselves whether this form of survival insurance justifies the expenditure of effort, time and money. For myself, I am convinced that it does. VIII. DISARMAMENT I cannot end this discussion of defense and armaments without emphasizing our strongest hope: the creation of an orderly world where disarmament will be possible. Our aims do not prepare for warthey are efforts to discourage and resist the adventures of others that could end in war. That is why it is consistent with these efforts that we continue to press for properly safeguarded disarmament measures. At Geneva, in cooperation with the United Kingdom, we have put forward concrete proposals to make clear our wish to meet the Soviets half way in an effective nuclear test ban treatythe first significant but essential step on the road towards disarmament. Up to now, their response has not been what we hoped, but Mr. Dean returned last night to Geneva, and we intend to go the last mile in patience to secure this gain if we can.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Phase 2 of - Assignment Example If the client is no position whatsoever to make rational decisions on their own, then it should be advised that a guardian or parent should do so on their behalf. This is normally in cases where their children involved or individuals experiencing some form of disability. (Corey, 2009) Counselors are required to present information that is clear and comprehensible. They should take their clients through their policies and terms and conditions, carefully making sure that they understand the details fully before they sign the consent form and agree to its clauses. It should be noted that it is against the law and ethical practices to include clauses that will somehow incriminate the client at a later stage due to misunderstanding. This is to ensure that the clients make their decisions out of free will and are not forced to do at any one point. The voluntary action is a clear indicator that the client is in complete authority and will to enroll in a counselling
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
What Ethical Consumerism means for Starbucks - Essay Example The conclusion will include a critical assessment of ethical consumerism in lieu of the evidence collected from primary and secondary research. The assessment will be limited to Starbucks. Finally, the paper will present recommendations as to how Starbucks can become more ethical. Consumers always want to be associated with products or services that are Ã¢â¬Å"clean,Ã¢â¬ meaning they do not bear any mark of malpractice. This orientation is influenced by many things, but it forms part of consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ personal philosophy. With natural resources becoming increasingly limited, and the degradation of human principles becoming increasingly blatant, governments and consumers have shifted attention to sustainable business practices. The sustainability message has been spread widely since the advent of the 21st century, and its core lies ethical consumerism. Globalisation has made society more interconnected, so much so that negative situations at one end of the globe are felt another end. A century ago, consumers did not care much about the methods used to deliver products and services provided they satisfied their needs. However, globalisation has ensured that unethical and immoral business practices affect consumers around the world in one way or the other. This explains the increasing popularity of ethical consumerism. This paper will discuss the various dynamics surrounding the concept. Ethical consumerism, also known as positive buying, can be defined, first, as a variant of consumer activism. Its basis lies in the belief that consumers should have a say in the products and services they pay for, and that they should be recognized and respected as valuable members of the supply chain. Ethical consumerism is guided by the notion that all purchases are motivated by moral choices.
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Bank of America case analysis Essay Problem statement The main problem in this case is that whether bank of America add the complicate app and add more new features or not. If they add the new complexity application, it could cost lot of money, and it could also give their users some negative effect. Like the case described Ã¢â¬Å"it is unclear if users were ready to sign up for mortgages or credit cards on their mobile phones.Ã¢â¬ BofA concerns about how the mobile banking affect their customers. Because behavioral factor is very important that made people to accept the new things reluctantly or not. From the market survey we know that there are three main reasons that people not to use the mobile banking: concerns of security, cost of data, less value. So if bank of America want to add their new app or add more futures, they should cope with those three factors at first. Recommendation I think bank of America should add new apps, because they can get improvement about their customer loyalty and satisfaction, and they can gain more market share form this way. If they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t build it, maybe they will behind that of other banks. Another reason is that with the development of the communication technology, there will be have full of the customers have their smartphone rather than the regular phones, so it can give bank of America more confidence to add app for smartphone customers. One of the most reasons for people not using mobile banking is the security concern. So how to improve security on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mobile devices has become a very important thing. They can make an external device for their mobile banking. The external device can insert into the headphone jack on smartphone. After the connection, customer should slide their card, and then system will be prompted to enter some personal authentication information, and then will send a message for their s martphone to get the verification code before use the mobile banking to do their account activities. Customer can get this external device for free if they open an account at bank of America. But if they lost it they should pay it for $30 to get another. This external device can make sure that customers dont have to worry about security issues. With this security problem solved, BofA will gain more customers and more market shares.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Charles Yale HarrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s Generals Die in Bed vs Colin McDougallÃ¢â¬â¢s Execution As with any genre, all novels termed Ã¢â¬Ëwar storiesÃ¢â¬â¢ share certain elements in common. The place and time settings of the novels, obviously, take in at least some aspect of at least one war or conflict. The characters tend to either be soldiers or are at least immediately affected by the military. An ever present sense of doom with punctuated moments of peace is almost a standard of the war novel. Beyond the basic similarities, however, each of these battle books stands apart as an individual. Charles Yale HarrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s World War I novel, Generals Die in Bed is, in essence, quite different than Colin McDougallÃ¢â¬â¢s Execution. Coming years earlier, Generals can almost be seen to hold the wisdom one would expect see in an older sibling, while Execution suffers the growing pains that the younger child inevitably feels. Most war novels center on themes of valor and heroism. Some concentrate on the opposites of these virtues in an attempt to display raw realism. Harrison, right from the beginning of his novel, shows us both. The narrator of this first-person narrative paints a picture of a totally un-heroic bunch of soldiers preparing for debarkation. The drinking and debauchery are followed the next morning by a parade that the suffering soldiers must march through, while the people watch their Ã¢â¬ËheroesÃ¢â¬â¢ leaving to bravely fight the good fight. While this clearly demarcates the innocent civilians from the savvy soldiers, it also shows the reader that the narrator is going to try to tell the real story. Execution starts with what is seemingly a journal entry, implying that it will be a first person narrative much the same as Ge... ... enough contrasts between them that allow them to stand out as completely individual from one another. Each of these novels, then, is able to both expand upon the other, while being free in its own expression at the same time. Works Cited Harrison, Charles Yale. Generals Die in Bed. Waterdown: Potlatch Publications, 1999. Lenoski, Daniel S. Ã¢â¬Å"Morning Glory: Execution and Romance.Ã¢â¬ American Review of Canadian Studies. Volume 23 (1993): 387 Ã¢â¬â 406. Mason, Michael A. Ã¢â¬Å"Execution: Heroism in a Modern War-Novel.Ã¢â¬ English Studies in Canada. Volume 5 (1979): 94 - 104. McDougall, Colin. Execution. Toronto: Macmillan, 1958. Thompson, Eric. Ã¢â¬Å"Canadian Fiction of the Great War.Ã¢â¬ Canadian Literature. Volume 91 (1981): 81 Ã¢â¬â 96. Vance, Jonathan. Death So Noble: Memory, Meaning, and the First World War. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1997.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
1. What skills does Black think employees need to work successfully in the area of HR? The skills that Black thinks employees need to work successfully in HR is for them to be commercial, challenging, and focused on delivery and excellence. They must also understand change and transformation, excel at operations, and balance tactical and strategic thinking and acting. They will have to be able to manage and navigate organizational complexity and ambiguities and not be afraid to say no in order to establish boundaries with the business. 2. What are some of the outcomes of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s new HR strategy? I think the outcomes of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s new HR strategy has been great. Early on there were some employees that were unsure about the charges, especially the long-time employees that were used to the old ways. Now it seems everyone sees how it has helped the company and everyone is happy and enjoys working for Lloyds. Another outcome is that the company is being recognized outside the firm. Lloyds was in the Sunday Times top 100 Best Companies to work for in the UK. It was also UKÃ¢â¬â¢s top 40 Business Brands by an independent researcher. 3. What do you think might be some of the challenges of establishing HR policies for global company? I think there are many challenges when establishing HR polices for a global company. Some of the challenges is the different geographies, culture, employment laws, employee compensation and benefits, taxes and business practices.Creating a global mind-set within the HR group, creating practices that will be consistently applied in different locations/offices while also maintaining the various local cultures and practices, and communicating a consistent corporate culture across the entire organization. 4. What types of situations do you think might require an HR manager to say Ã¢â¬Å"noÃ¢â¬ ?I think the HR manager should say no, when the employees are requesting things that go against the company policies. CASE STUDY 2 1 .Evaluate the conduct of Peter Lewiston against the EEOCÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of sexual harassment. PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s actions definitely shows sexual harassment when compared to the definition of the EEOC. The second form of sexual harassment is what caused a hostile environment for Beverly and is classified as unwelcomed sexual conduct which has an effect of interfering with job performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensiveÃ working environment. Peter made it his business himself to enter her environment by spending extra time in her classroom with her and her students which were unwelcome advances. Peter also begged again and again asking Beverly out on lunch dates, which she continuously denied. Peter also spoke (e.g. verbal) on Beverly appearan ce and the feelings he had for her as well as giving flowers, cards and notes, all of them were unwelcome and was told to Peter by Beverly. Peter harassed her in a physical form too, stalking her and staring when she walked to her car, also attempting to touch Beverly. All of Mr. LewistonÃ¢â¬â¢s actions created an extreme hostile environment for Beverly Gilbury. 2. Should the intent or motive behind Lewistons conduct be considered when deciding sexual harassment activities? Explain.Peter actions should surely be taken into consideration. If an employee was to touch another employee, it could mean a signal for saying hello or congratulations, or see you later it might not mean anything.However, if employee that was touched had emotional feelings for the employee the touchers touch can be percieved as trying to fondle. If the touched is okay with this, there is no problem, but if toucher was asked repeatedly to stop, there could be reason for a sexual harassment suit. 3. If you were the districts EEOC officer, what would you conclude? What disciplinary action, if any, would you take? If I held the position of EEOC officer, I would evaluate the evidence such as, letters, statements, and legal documents and would recommend that the enployee accused, Mr. Lewiston would, be terminated for creating a hostile work environment for the victim in this case.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
The fall of HusseinÃ¢â¬â¢s regime marked the dawn of the advocacy towards counterterrorism. The war between the United States and the former Iraqi government had really severed the relationship of the two states (Davis, 2002). The war ended with the US as the victor. Yet the true battle has not been started yet. There are still potential forces that are really capable of destroying the world order again. Osama Bin Laden and his Al Qaeda group are not yet captured. Hence, there are reasons for US not to take its eyes off on the possibility of another outbreak may be it in the Middle East or any place in the globe.What Counterterrorism Is? Counterterrorism pertains to the techniques and strategies that are geared against terrorism (Howard & Sawyer, 2005). Counterterrorism does not limit itself from solely being formed and employed by a particular government. It includes all groups and sectors of the society. It is impossible to make the advocacy towards counterterrorism without needi ng the help of other agencies such the business sector. Certainly, the citizens of the state must be well-informed about the scope and limitations of such campaign so as to get their perspectives regarding it.The campaign for counterterrorism starts with a plan. In the formulation of the plan, various strategies, tactics, and techniques are also developed to respond to terrorist attacks. The plan normally includes Ã¢â¬Å"special forcesÃ¢â¬ and teams that are directly responsible for the implementation of particular strategies against the terrorists (Howard & Sawyer, 2005). In this contemporary period, campaigns for counterterrorism are becoming prevalent not only in the Western regions but also in the Eastern and Southern regions.The United States has started to solicit support form its allied countries to materialize its plan of combating terrorism. US Policy on Counterterrorism As mentioned in the introduction, the great efforts of the US to strengthen its position against terr orism started after the September 11 bombing which put the whole of US in big indignity. The US drafted a national as well as international policy against terrorism. The US Counterterrorism Policy states that it strongly espouses a war against terrorism and all other forms of it.The policy stressed that the US shall vigorously act so as to defeat terrorist attacks against the state and the citizens (Naftali, 2005). According to the policy, the US government including all its major departments and agencies shall put great effort so in order to reduce the vulnerabilities of the US on terrorism (Naftali, 2005). All the departments and agencies mentioned in the policy shall see to it that the counterterrorism campaign of the state is given the highest priority. Such that it shall secure that all of their areas of responsibility are protected from terrorist attacks (Davis, 2002).In addition, the policy states that its implementation shall be appropriately and effectively employed by all US departments and agencies by shouldering all the costs of its implementation as well as developing efficient and useful technologies that can really contribute in countering terrorism (Naftali, 2005). The US Counterterrorism Policy is not only limited in the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s national territory. In fact, its policy extends even outside US. It requires that countries who house particular terrorist groups shall be able to cooperate with them.It is clearly stated in the policy that the US government will be using all means to get terrorist groups from their host country no matter if the latter agrees or not. And those countries that refuse to do so would be labeled as advocates of terrorism thus they shall be treated as enemies of the state. Such is the scope of the US policy on counterterrorism (Howard & Sawyer, 2005). Counterterrorism vs. Civil Liberties The former or the traditional surveillance in the US has been developed into something that which is superior in terms of its strict implementation. Yet, as we all know, everything that exceeds the normal is evil.In US, people are said to be more secured and protected against any forms of violence particularly by terrorism (Darmer & Baird, 2004). This is due to the fact that the US government gives priority to the enforcement of the anti-terrorism or counterterrorism policy. As consequences, people are confident enough of their safety wherever they are in the globe. However, such strictness in the counterterrorism policy implies the curtailment of certain civil liberties of its citizens. As mentioned earlier, all US departments and agencies have been instructed to do their very best and to prioritize the campaign against terrorism.By doing so, people would not really be able do their thing as how they do it before. This means that they have to sacrifice their some of their freedom (i. e. privacy) just to ensure that the policy on counterterrorism is not being obstructed by anyone or anything (Darmer & Baird, 200 4). This seems to be problematic especially for those advocates of human rights. By implementing the policy, the government has given a direct authority over the citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s life so as to secure that there are no threats of terrorism. It may seem beneficial to all because they are being protected by the state.Yet people may also experience severe interference and intervention from the government (Howard & Sawyer, 2005). And these things are not really good for the government inflicts pointless suffering on its citizens. As reported, there are increasing numbers of human rights victims in the US whose grievances are caused by the policy on counterterrorism. Furthermore, it undermines the welfare of the people in the sense that it gives more priority (i. e. higher subsidy for military) to the campaign against terrorism than giving more funds for education, and social and heath services (Darmer & Baird, 2004).References: Darmer, M. K. , & Baird, R. M. (2004). Civil Liberties Vs. N ational Security In A Post 9/11 World . Prometheus Books . Davis, P. K. (2002). Deterrence and Influence in Counterterrorism: A Component in the War on Al Qaeda. RAND Corporation . Howard, R. D. , & Sawyer, R. L. (2005). Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Understanding the New Security Environment, Readings and Interpretations (2nd ed. ). McGraw Hill/Dushkin. Naftali, T. (2005). Blind Spot: The Secret History of American Counterterrorism . Amazon Remainders Account .
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Differences Between Centipedes and Millipedes Centipedes and millipedesÃ seem to get lumped together in a miscellaneous group, simply, the critters that are notÃ insects or arachnids. Most people have difficulties telling the two apart. Both centipedes and millipedes belong to the subgroup of multilegged creatures called myriapods. Centipedes Within the myriapods, the centipedes belong to their own class, called chilopods. There are 8,000 species.Ã The class name originates from the Greek cheilos, meaning lip, and poda, meaning foot. The word centipede comes from theÃ LatinÃ prefixÃ centi-, meaning hundred, andÃ pedis, meaning foot. Despite the name, centipedes can have a varying number of legs, ranging from 30 to 354. Centipedes always have an odd number of pairs of legs, which means no species has only 100 legs as the name suggests.Ã Millipedes Millipedes belong to a separate class of diplopods. There are about 12,000 species of millipedes.Ã The class name is also from the Greek, diplopoda which means double foot.Ã Although the word millipede derives from theÃ LatinÃ for thousand feet, no known species has 1,000 feet, the record holds at 750 legs.Ã Differences Between Centipedes and Millipedes Besides the number of legs, there are a number of characteristics that set centipedes and millipedes apart.Ã Characteristic Centipede Millipede Antennae Long Short Number of legs One pair per body segment Two pairs per body segment, except for the first three segments, which have one pair each Appearance of legs Visibly extend from sides of body; trail backward behind body Do not visibly extend from body; rear leg pairs in line with body Movement Fast runners Slow walkers Bite Can bite Do not bite Feeding habits Mostly predatory Mostly scavengers Defensive mechanism Use their fast moves to escape predators, injects venom to paralyze prey and can squeeze prey with back legs. Curls body into tight spirals to protect their soft undersides, head, and legs. They can burrow easily. Many species discharge a smelly and disgusting-tasting liquid that drives off many predators. Ways That Centipedes and Millipedes Are Alike Although they vary in a lot of ways, there are some similarities between centipedes and millipedes like belonging to the largest phylum in the animal kingdom, Arthropoda. Body Similarities Besides both having antennae and many legs, they also breathe through little holes or spiracles on the sides of their bodies. They both have poor vision. They both grow by shedding their external skeletons, and when they are young, grow new segments to their bodies and new legs each time they molt. Habitat Preferences Both centipedes and millipedes are found throughout the world but are most abundant in the tropics. They require a moist environment and are most active at night. Meet the Species The giant Sonoran centipede,Ã Scolopendra heros, which is native to Texas in the U.S., can reach 6 inches in length and has sizeable jaws that pack quite a punch. The venom can cause enough pain and swelling to land you in the hospital and can be very dangerous to small children orÃ individuals that are sensitive to insect toxins. The giant African millipede,Ã ArchispirostreptusÃ gigas, is one of the largest millipedes, growing up to 15 inches in length. It has approximately 256 legs. It is native to Africa but rarely lives in high altitudes. It prefers forest. It is black in color, is harmless and is often kept as a pet. Generally, giant millipedes have a life expectancy of up to seven years.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Duel Between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr The duel between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr is not only a fascinating part of early United States history but also one whose impact cannot be overstated as it resulted in the death of Hamilton who was serving as Washingtons Secretary of the Treasury. The foundation of their rivalry was set many years before they actually met on a fateful day in July of 1804. Causes of the Rivalry Between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr The rivalry between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr had its roots in a 1791 Senate race. Aaron Burr defeated Philip Schuyler who was Hamiltons father-in-law. Schuyler as a Federalist would have supported George Washingtons and Hamiltons policies while Burr as a Democratic-Republican opposed those policies. The relationship only became more fractured during the election of 1800. The electoral college was at an impasse as to the selection of the president between Thomas Jefferson, who was supposed to be running for president, and Aaron Burr, who was running for the Vice President position. Once the votes were counted, it was found that Jefferson and Burr were tied. This meant that the House of Representatives had to decide which person would become the new president. While Alexander Hamilton didnt support either candidate, he hated Burr more than Jefferson. As a result of Hamiltons political maneuverings in the House of Representatives, Jefferson became president and Burr was named his Vice President. In 1804, Alexander Hamilton again entered the fray in a campaign against Aaron Burr. Burr was running for New York Governor, and Hamilton vigorously campaigned against him. This helped Morgan Lewis win the election and led to further animosity between the two men. The situation worsened when Hamilton criticized Burr at a dinner party. Angry letters were exchanged between the two men with Burr asking for Hamilton to apologize. When Hamilton would not do so, Burr challenged him to a duel. Duel Between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr On July 11, 1804, in the early morning hours, Hamilton met Burr at the agreed upon site at the Heights of Weehawken in New Jersey. Aaron Burr and his second, William P. Van Ness, cleared the dueling grounds of trash, and Alexander Hamilton and his second, Nathaniel Pendelton, arrived shortly before 7 AM. It is believed that Hamilton fired first and probably honored his pre-duel pledge to throw away his shot. However, his unorthodox manner of firing up instead of into the ground gave Burr the justification to take aim and shoot Hamilton. The bullet from Burr struck Hamilton in the abdomen and probably did significant damage to his internal organs. He died from his wounds a day later. Aftermath of Alexander Hamiltons Death The duel ended the life of one of the greatest minds of Federalist Party and the early U.S. Government. Alexander Hamilton as Secretary of the Treasury had a significant impact on the commercial underpinning of the new federal government. The duel also made Burr a pariah in the political landscape of the U.S. Although his duel was considered to be within the bounds of the moral ethics of the time, his political aspirations were ruined.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
CONTRACT LAW - Essay Example Consideration moves from the promisee, not the third party and thus the third party cannot sue upon the contract (Tweddle v Atkinson 2. As imagined, this was done in the interest of certainty in law but it did have the potential of leading to unfairness for a party to whom the benefit was provided, such as that witnessed in Dunlop and Shanklin Pier v Detel Products3. This is where the Law Commission came in with its reforms in 1996. The resulting Contract (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 brought into force that report of the Law Commission (1996) which allows third parties to enforce the contract and be able to sue for breaches subject to a few conditions. Needless to say, this brought forth a welcome wave of statutory protection for third parties which previously were entitled to benefits under that contract but still could not enforce it due to lack of consideration. Section 1 of the Contract (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 provides that a third party may be able to enfo rce the terms of the contract if Ã¢â¬Å"the contract expressly provides that he mayÃ¢â¬ (s.1(1)(a)) and Ã¢â¬Å"the term purports to confer a benefit on himÃ¢â¬ (s. 1(1)(b)) (except where on proper construction Ã of the contract it appears that the parties did not intend the term to be enforceable by the third party (s.1(2)). Thus if A agrees to pay C $100 on the performance of an obligation by B, C can enforce that payment if A fails to pay in breach. This was not the case earlier, as seen in Beswick v Beswick4 where the nephew made a contract with his uncle which involved payment of weekly maintenance to the aunt. The House of Lords held that Mrs. Beswick could not enforce the contract since she was not privy to it. In light of the Contract (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 today, it is clear that the case would have been decided differently. The third party may also rely on exclusion clauses in order to protect its interest. However, simply conferring a benefit to the thi rd party may not be enough to grant him a right to sue. Where there is doubt as to whether the parties designed the agreement to avoid conferring a right to sue on the third party, s.1(2) applies and the courts will, on a proper construction of the contract, seek to determine the actual intention of the parties. This presents certain problems if the contract does not expressly state the intention of the parties. In Nisshin Shipping Co Ltd v Cleaves & Co Ltd 5, the burden of proof to counter a right granted to a third party to sue under s.1(2) was placed on the party that alleges that such a right has been wrongfully applied (as per Colman J). Thus, in a neutral contract, where there is no language barring the third party to sue, it would usually follow that the statute often grants a right to sue to the third party. This safeguards the third party a little too broadly, and it has been applied differently where the chain of sub-contracts is long. In cases where the contract con sist of sub-contracts that purport to confer a benefit to a third party, it is more likely for courts to construe that parties privy to a sub-contract lower down the chain did not intend to enable the third party benefitting under that contract to sue up the hierarchy the original contractor (see Junior Book v. Veitchi & Co Ltd 6. Of course, it must be noted that the Act does not allow the right to a third party in all cases and the parties may explicitly bar him to sue on it. In addition, there must be some identification